Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

But before studying post-Independence scholars we should first look into the pre-Independence writings of one of the greatest Indian leaders and intellectuals of the twentieth century, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. He is revered by all sections of Indian society, perhaps only next to Mahatma Gandhi. Whatever be his views on Hinduism, he was honest enough to study the contents and behaviour of Islam and Christianity and wrote bluntly about them. In fact, when he decided to quit Hinduism along with his followers, in spite of several appeals and enticements by Muslim and Christian clergy and leaders, he chose to embrace Buddhism, another Hindu faith.

Unlike several Hindu leaders of this period, Dr. Ambedkar was very clear about the danger posed by Islam and Muslims to this country. During 1927 – 29, Dr. Ambedkar owned a Marathi newspaper called ‘Bahishkrut Bharat’. In it he maintained that the dispute in this country is not between two societies but two nations. He was very critical of the Nehruvian plan of separating the Sind from the Bombay province and not giving equivalent minority rights to Hindus where they were in minority. He was quite worried about the fact that in undivided India the Muslim majority provinces were on the border. He felt that due to this the borders were not safe in case of any threat to our security by a Muslim power as the Indian Muslims had no loyalty for Hindusthan. He also strongly condemned the pardah system in Islam.

Dr. Ambedkar developed this thesis subsequently in his well known book, ‘Pakistan or The Partition of India’1. In Chapter Four he traced the history of Muslim invasions and the butchering, forced conversions and rape of Hindu women and the destruction of Hindu temples and monuments. He has clearly brought out the truth that the invaders were not interested merely in looting, but also in conversion of the kafirs. He is very forthright in his description of the atrocities committed by the Muslims and has extensively quoted from historical records. He has quoted scholars who state that the Hindu peasants had to part with half of their produce as Jiziya as well as pay a large tax on their cattle. (P. 62)

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We give below a few excerpts from this book to show that Dr. Ambedkar was well aware of the various problems posed by Islam to Indian society and polity.

Chapter VII

It is a notorious fact that many prominent Hindus who had offended the Muslim susceptibilities of the Muslims either by their writings or by their part in the Shuddhi movement have been murdered by some fanatic Musalmans. ….. But Mr. Gandhi has never protested against such murders. Not only have the Musalmans not condemned these outrages but even Mr. Gandhi has never called upon the leading Muslims to condemn them “(P. 156)

“But there are others who….. believe in the possibility of Hindu-Muslim unity. This belief of theirs seems to rest on two grounds. Firstly they believe in the efficacy of a Central Goernment to mould diverse set of people into one nation. Secondly, they feel that the satisfaction of Muslim demands will be a sure means of achieving Hindu-Muslim unity”. (P. 187). Dr. Ambedkar subsequently shows that both presumptions are not valid.

Chapter X :

In this chapter Dr. Ambedkar has analysed the social evils amongst Muslims and comments as follows :

“One may well ask if there is any social evil which is found among the Hindus and is not found among the Muslims?”

“Take child-marriage….. Can the position among the Musalmans so far as child-marriage goes, be considered better than the position among the Hindus?” (P. 225)

“Take the position of women. It is insisted by Muslims that the legal rights given to Muslim women, ensure them a greater measure of independence than allowed to other Eastern women…. the Muslim woman is the most helpless person in the world…. her fate is ‘once married, always married’. She cannot escape the marriage tie, however irksome it may be. While she cannot repudiate the marriage, the husband can always do it without having to show any cause..… This latitude in the marriage in the matter of divorce destroys that sense of security which is so fundamental for a full, free and happy life for a woman. This insecurity of life, to which a Muslim woman is exposed, is greatly augmented by the right of polygamy and concubinage, which the Muslim law gives to the husband” (P. 226)

“Take the caste system. Islam speaks of brotherhood. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from slavery and caste. Regarding slavery nothing needs to be said. It stand abolished now by law. But while it existed much of its support was derived from Islam and Islamic countries….. But if slavery has gone, caste among Musalmans has remained” (P. 228). Dr. Ambedkar then quotes the 1901 census report for Bengal to show that Muslims there have several castes including Arzal or untouchable castes with whom no other Mohamedan would associate and who are forbidden to enter the mosque to use the public burial ground. He also quotes from the same Report about the panchayat system of each caste which extends to social as well as trade matters resulting in castes which are as strictly endogenous as Hindu castes.”

“There can thus be no manner of doubt that the Muslim Society in India is afflicted by the same social evils as afflict the Hindu Society. Indeed, the Muslims have all the social evils of the Hindus and something more. That something more is the compulsory system of purdah for Muslim women…. they are usually victims to anemia, tuberculosis and pyorrhea. Their bodies are deformed, with their backs bent, bones protruded, hands and feet crooked. Ribs, joints and nearly all their bones ache. Heart palpitation is very often present in them. The result of this pelvic deformity is untimely death at delivery…… the process of moral degeneration must and does set in. Being completely secluded from the outer world, they engage their minds in petty family quarrels….. The physical and intellectual effects of purdah are nothing as compared to its effects on morals…… a social system which cuts off all contacts between the two sexes produces an unhealthy tendency towards sexual excesses and unnatural and other morbid habits and ways…. It is responsible for the social segregation of Hindus from Muslims which is the bane of public life in India.” (P. 230)

“The Muslims have no interest in politics as such. Their predominant interest is in religion…. Muslim politics is essentially clerical and recognizes only one difference, namely, that existing between Hindus and Muslims. None of the secular categories of life have any place in the politics of the Muslim community and if they do find a place – and they must because they are irrepressible – they are subordinated to one and the only one governing principle of the Muslim political universe, namely religion.” (P. 232)

“The existence of these evils among the Muslims is distressing enough. But far more distressing is the fact that there is no organised movement of social reforms among the Musalmans of India on a scale sufficient to bring about their eradication.….. The Muslims on the other hand, do not realize that they are evils and consequently do not agitate for their removal. Indeed, they oppose any change in the existing practices.” (P. 233)

Dr. Ambedkar then goes on to analyze the reasons for this attitude. He feels that it is the fundamental assumption made by all Muslims that Islam is a world religion, suitable for all people, for all times and for all conditions which causes these attitudes. Although its rigidity is being challenged elsewhere in the world, the Indian Muslim community is still clinging to it. The reason for this is due to the peculiar position he occupies in India as he is placed in a predominantly Hindu social and political environment which he feels is encroaching on his existence. The Muslims think that the Hindus and Muslims must perpetually struggle.

Chapters XI and XII

Dr. Ambedkar discusses the causes behind the behaviour and political aggression of the Muslims in these chapters. “How the Muslim mind will work and by what factors it is likely to be swayed will be clear if the fundamental tenets of Islam which dominate the Muslim politics and the views expressed by prominent Muslims bearing on Muslim attitude towards an Indian Government are taken into consideration….. Among the tenets the one that calls for notice is the tenet of Islam which says that in a country which is not under Muslim rule, wherever there is a conflict between Muslim law and the law of the land, the former must prevail over the latter and a Muslim will be justified in obeying the Muslim law and defying the law of the land.” (P. 292). He quotes the Muslim leader Maulana Mahomed Ali, “the only allegiance a Musalman, whether a civilian or soldier, whether living under a Muslim or under non-Muslim administration, is commanded by the Koran to acknowledge is his allegiance to God, to his Prophet and to those in authority from among the Musalmans…. But the unalterable rule is and has always been that as Musalmans they can obey only such laws and orders issued by their secular rulers as do not involve disobedience to the commandments of God who in the expressive language of the Holy Koran is ‘the all-ruling ruler.” (P. 293)

Dr. Ambedkar then discusses the Muslim Canon Law which divides the world into two camps, Dar-ul-Islam (abode of Islam) and Dar-ul-Harb (abode of war). He quotes Dr. Titus who says that a discussion took place within the Muslim community for fifty years on whether India was Dar-ul-Islam or Dar-ul-Harb. He then points out another injunction, Jihad (crusade) by which it becomes incumbent on a Muslim ruler to extend the rule of Islam until the whole world shall have been brought under its sway. “Not only can they proclaim Jihad but they can call the aid of a foreign Muslim power to make Jihad a success, or if the foreign Muslim power intends to proclaim a Jihad, help that power in making its endeavor a success.” He then draws attention to the third tenet “that Islam does not recognise territorial affinities. Its affinities are social and religious and therefore extraterritorial….. This is the basis of Pan-Islamism. It is this which leads every Musalman in India to say that he is a Muslim first and Indian afterwards……. To the Muslims a Hindu is a Kaffir. A Kaffir is not worthy of any respect. He is low-born and without status” (P. 301). Dr. Ambedkar goes on to show that this concept of Kaffir was extended even to Mahatma Gandhi by quoting his comrade-in-arm in the Khilafat movement, Mr. Mahomed Ali who said, “However pure Mr. Gandhi’s character may be, he must appear to me from the point of view religion inferior to any Muslaman, even though he may be without character “and “Yes, according to my religion and creed, I do hold an adulterous and fallen Musalman to be better than Mr. Gandhi.” (P. 302)

Dr. Ambedkar also quotes prominent Hindu leaders who were alive to the problem. For example “Mrs. Annie Besant says….. The world has gone beyond such so-called theocracies, in which God’s commands are given through a man. The claim now put forward by Musalman leaders that they must obey the laws of their particular prophet above the laws of the State in which they live, is subversive of civic order and the stability of the State…… Malabar has taught us what Islamic rule still means, and we do not want to see another specimen of the ‘Khilafat Raj in’ India……. there is no place in a civilised land for people who believe that their religion teaches them to murder, rob, rape, burn, or drive away out of the country those who refuse to apostatise from their ancestral faiths….. Such ‘Laws of God’ cannot be allowed to override the laws of a civilised country….. In fact, Muslim sects are not safe in a country ruled by orthodox Muslims” (P. 278)

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He also quotes Lala Lajpatrai expressing apprehensions about Hindu-Muslim unity as well as a interview with the poet Dr. Rabindra Nath Tagore, “another very important factor which, according to the poet, was making it impossible for Hindu-Mohamedan unity to become an accomplished fact was that the Mohamedans could not confine their patriotism to any one country….. The poet said he had very frankly asked many Mohamedans whether, in the event of any Mohamedan power invading India, they would stand side by side with their Hindu neighbours to defend their common land. He could not be satisfied with the reply he got from them. He said that he could definitely state that even such men as Mr. Mahomed Ali had declared that under no circumstances was it permissible for any Mohamedan, whatever his country might be, to stand against any other Mohamedan.” (P. 276)

Dr. Ambedkar has also written, “Hinduism is said to divide people and in contrast Islam is said to bind people together. This is only a half truth. For Islam divides as inexorably as it binds. Islam is a close corporation and the distinction that it makes between Muslims and non-Muslims is very real, very positive and very alienating distinction. The brotherhood of Islam is not the universal brotherhood of man. It is brotherhood of Muslims for Muslims only….. The second defect of Islam is that it is a system of social self-government and is incompatible with local self-government, because the allegiance of a Muslim does not rest on his domicile in the country which is his but on the faith to which he belongs.” (P. 330). Also “The Muslims are howling against the Hindu Maha Sabha and its slogan of Hindudom and Hindu Raj. But who is responsible for this? Hindu Maha Sabha and Hindu Raj are the inescapable nemesis which the Musalmans have brought upon themselves by having a Muslim League. It is action and counter-action. One gives rise to the other.” (P. 359)

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It may be mentioned again here that when Dr. Ambedkar decided to make Buddhism his religion after much deliberation, and in spite of several inducements, he refused to embrace Islam or Christianity and instead chose another Indian faith.

Dr. Ambedkar believed that the solution to this problem lay in the partition of British India with a systematic exchange of population. The first part of his proposal was ultimately hurriedly carried out in spite of vehement denials of the Congress leaders. Unfortunately no action on the second part i.e. the exchange of population was undertaken by out leaders and after a gap of a few decades this has led to the continuation and intensification of this problem in India. It is also very surprising that when Dr. Ambedkar was so clear about Islam, his present followers are bending over backwards to appease this community for its votes, instead of using their influence to educate them and bring them within the national mainstream. Nor have the nationalist leaders, even after partition, ever asked the Muslims to officially give up their outdated theology and concepts.


Secularists on Islam


Post-Independence establishment intellectuals, mostly Marxist by orientation and the residue comprising of neutralized Hindus have defined their intellectualism through defense of Islam and Christianity. They go to great lengths to defend Islam, an allied dogma of Marxism, and bend over backwards for showering praise on it for virtues like tolerance, love and Sarva-dharma-samabhava. There are some convenient passages in the Koran which they can always quote. The Marxists of course are in the forefront for reasons given by Mr. Dalwai below. Their general theme is that they are more sinned against than sinning. This is generally being done to show that there is nothing unique about Hindu faiths, which in fact are inferior because of what they claim are several shortcomings intrinsic in them. The whole purpose of this Macaulay-Marxist nexus is to discredit Hinduism so that Hindus lose confidence in themselves and ultimately lose the battle for survival.

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But this does not mean that there have not been scholars who have not analyzed at least some aspects of Islam, particularly in India. The more intellectually honest among them, generally genuine socialist intellectuals, have at least looked into the behavior of Muslims if not their scriptures. It will be rather surprising to note that they have echoed several comments made in the previous chapters.

1-Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

2-Prof. A. B. Shah

3-Sri Hamid Dalwai

4- Prof. Narhar Kurundkar

5-Sri Madhu Limaye


Some passages from the Quran


This Appendix containing a few representative verses (or portions of them) from the Koran has been included in this book only to substantiate the author’s point of view of Islam and its adherents. This was felt to be necessary because the Koran is the source scripture, and indeed the only scripture from which is derived the entire existence of the religion of Islam and its theology; and a careful study of the  the Koran and an analysis of its content is a sine qua non to understanding the objective of this book. The excerpts from the Koran have been grouped according to subject, to the extent possible. It will be noted that the original is in chaste Arabic and almost poetic language. Hence translation to another language does not always render the exact meaning and nuance of the original. We find that more recent translation of the Koran are `sanitised’ versions when compared t earlier ones and hence we have chosen two well known translators-the earlier by Marmaduke Pickthal (P), an Englishman serving in the court of the Nizam and who had converted to Islam, and the modern version by Dawood (D). It is in the interest of Hindus, for Hindu scholars proficient in the Arabic language, to translate the Koran and bring out its nuances, of interest and concern to us.

There may be several translations and interpretations, but what is important is how and how much have Muslims themselves understood their scripture and implemented its injunctions and precepts in thier lives at various times. It is also important for us to know how they have reconciled the contradictions which abound in the Koran, whenever they have been forced to defend their conduct and their scripture after being accused of intolerance and fanaticism. It should be remembered that most of these are of the early Meccan period when Muhammad’s follwers were in a minority and their faith had not received wide acceptability. The substance of these concilaiatory verses have been abrogated, that is, replaced chronologically by the content of the later Medinan suras which are most intolerant, fanatic and unforgiving of any deviation. It is from the later suras that most of the passages are quoted below.


 If you have doubt what we have revealed to Our Servant, produce one chapter comparable to it. Call upon your idols to assist you, if what you say be true. But if you fail (as you are sure to fail) then guard yourselves against the Fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the unbelievers. 2.23-24 D

God is the enemy of the unbelievers. 2.98 D

But the infields who die unbelievers shall incur the curse of God. 2.161 D

And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter….2.191 P

Fight against them until idolatry is no more and God’s religion reigns supreme. But if they desist (i.e. give up), fight none except the evil-doers. 2.193 D

God will not forvive idolatry. He will forgive whom he will all other sins. He that serves other gods besides God has strayed far indeed. 4.116 D (In other words, Gandhi will burn in Hell forever because he was a polytheist, but Osama bin Laden may be forgiven because he was a monotheist. Polytheism is a worse sin than having sex with neighbor’s wife, according to Islam! )

 You will find that the most implacable of men in their enmity to the faithful are the jews and the pagans….5.82 D

 Tell the unbelivers that if they mend their ways [i.e. embrace Islam] their past shall be forviven; but if they persist in sin [i.e. idol worship], let them reflect upon the faith of their forefathers. 8.38 D

And make war on them [ubelievers] until idolatry shall cease and God’s religion shall reign supreme…8.39 D

 Proclaim a woeful punishment to the unbelievers… 9.4 D

 ….slay the idolaters wherever you find them. Arrest them, besiege them, and lie in ambush sleverywhere for them. If they repent and take to prayer and render the alms levy, allow them to go their way. God is forgiving and merciful. 9.5 D

God and his Apostle repose no trust in idolaters…9.7 D

 Fight them! Allah will chastise them at your hands, and He will lay them low and give you victory over them, and He will heal the breasts of folks who are believers. 9.14 P

 Vain shall be their works, and in the fire they shall abide for ever. 9.17D

 Prophet, make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal rigorously with them. Hell shall be their home: and evil fare. 9.73 D

 Do the unbelievers think that that they can make My servants partrons besides me? We have prepared Hell for the unbelievers to dwell in. Say : ‘Shall we tell you who will lose most through their labours? Those whose endeavours in this world are misguided and who yet think that what they do is right; who disbelieve the revelations of their Lord and deny that they will ever meet Him.’ Vain are the works of these. On the day of Resourrection Whe shall not honour them. Hell is their reward because they had no faith, and because they scoffed at My apostles and My revelation. 18.102-106 D

 You and your idols shall be the fuel of Hell; therin you shall all go down. Where they true gods, your idols would not go there : but there they shall abide for ever. They shall groan with anguish and be bereft of hearing. 21.98-100 D

When you meet the unbelievers in the beattlefield strike off their heads, and when you have laid them low, blind your captives firmly. Then grant them their freedom or take ransom from them, until War shall lay down her burdens. 47.4 D

Prophet, make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and deal sternly with them. Hell shall be  their home, evil their fate. 66.9 D

l         The unbelievers in among the People of the Book and the pagans shall burn for ever in the fire of Hell. They are the vilest of all creatures. 98.6 D


 As for the unbelievers, it is the same whether or not you forewarn them: theu will not have faith. God has set a seal upon their hearts and ears: their sight is dimmed and grievous punishment awaits them. 2.6 D

 God will mock them and keep them long in sin, blundering blindly along. 2.15 D

 Would you guide those whom God has confounded? He whom God confounds, you cannot guide. 4.88 D

 Had Allah willed, they [the idolaters] had not been idolatrous. We have not set thee [Muhammad] as a keeper over them, nor art thou responsible for them. 6.108 P

 We will turn away their hearts and eyes from the Truth since they refused to believe in it at first. We will let them blunder about in their wrongdoing. 6.111 D

 He who Allah leadeth, he indeed is led alright, while he whom Allah sendeth astray-they indeed are losers. 8.178 P

Already we have urged unto hell many of the jinn and humankind, having hearts wherewith they understand not, and having eyes wherewith they hear not. These are as the cattle – nay, they are worse! These are the neglectful. 7.179 P

 Say : ‘Nothing will befall us except what God has ordained. 9.51 D

 And Allah summoneth to the abode of peace, and leadth whom He will to a straight path. 10.26 (p)

 And if thy Lord had willed, he verily would have made mankind one nation, Yet they cease not differing. Save him on whom thy Lord hath mercy; and that he did create them. And the Word of thy Lord hath been fulfilled; Verily I shall fill hel with the jinn and mankind together. 11.118 & 119 P

 God leaves in error whom He will. 13.27 D

 Indeed their fold devices seem fair to the unbelievers, for they are debarred from the right path. None can guide those God whom has lead astrary. They shall be punished in this nether life, but more grievous is the punishment of the life to come. Non shall protect them from God. 13.33-34 D

 …But God leaves in error whom He will and guides whom He pleases. He is mighty, the Wise One. 14.4 D

 Had God pleased, He would have united you into one nation. But He confounds whom He will and gives guidance to whom he pleases. You shall be questioned about all your actions. 16.93 D

 The fate of each man We have bound about his neck. 17.13 D

 Those whom God guides are rightly guided; but those whom he confounds shall find no friend besides Him. We shall gather them all on the Day of Resurrection, prostrate upon their faces. deaf, dumb and blind. Hell shall be their home : whenever its flames die down We shall rekindle them with a greater Fire. 17.97-98 D

 …and verily Allah guideth whom He will. 22.16 P

 Had it been our will, We could have sent to every nation someone to give warning. 25.51 D

 Had it been Our will, We could have given every soul its guidance. But My word shall be fulfilled: ‘I will fill the pit of Gell with jinn and men.’ 32.13 D

 ….Such is Allah’s guidance, wherewith He guideth whom He will. And whom Allah sends astray. for him there is no guide. 39.23 P

 Every misfortune that befalls the earth, or your persons, is ordained before We bring it into being. 57.22 D

 who has ordained their destinies and guided them. 87.2 D


 Women are your fields : go, then, into your fields when you please….2.223 P

 Women shall with justice have rights similar to those exercised against them, although men have a status above women. God is mighty and wise . 2.228 D

 If a man divorces his wife, he shall not remarry her until she has wedded another man and been divorced by him; in which case it shall be no offense for either of them to return to the other, if they think that they can keep within the bounds set by God. 2.230 D

 Give women their dowry as free gift; but if they choose to make over to you a part of it, you may regard it as lawfully yours. 4.4 D

 A male shall inherit twice as much as a female. 4.11 D

Men have authority over women because God had made the one superior to the other. 4.34 D

 Enjoin believing women to turn their eyes away from temptations and to preserve their chastity; to cover their adornments (except such as are normally displayed); to draw their veils over their bosom and not to reveal their finery except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their women-servants, and their slave-girls; male attendants lacking natural vigour, and children who have no carnal knowledge of women. And let them not stamp feet their when walking so as to reveal their hidden trinkets. 24.31 D

l         Prophet, enjoin you wives, you daughters, and the wives of true believers to draw their veils close around them. That is more proper, so that they may be recognised and not be molested. God is forgiving and merciful. 33.58 D


 Prophet, We have made lawful to you the wives to whom you have granted dowrise and the slave girls whom God had given as booty; the daughters of your paternal and maternal uncles and of your paternal and maternal aunts who fled with you; and any believing woman who gives herself to the Prophet and whom the Prophet wishes to take in marriage. This privilege is yours alone, being granted to no other believer. (Swami Dayananda Saraswati rightly characterized the Allah of the Quran as Muhammad’s domestic servant. Of course, Muhammad made these verses to serve his own purpose).

We well know the duties we have imposed on the faithful concerning their wives and slave-girls. We grant you this privilege so that none ,ay blame you. God is forgiving and merciful. 33.50 (D)

 You may put of any of your wives you please and take to your bed any of them your please. Nor is it unlawful for you to receive any of those whom you have temporarily set aside. That is more proper, so that they may be contented and not vexed, and may all be pleased with what you give them. 33.51 (D)

 It may happen that his Lord, if he divorces you will given in your stead wives better than you. submissive (to Allah(, believing, pious, penitent, inclines to fasting, widows and maids. 66.5 (P)


Lo! Those who disbelieve Our revelations, We shall expose them to the Fire. As often as their skins are consumed We shall exchange them for fresh skins that they may taste the torment. Lo Allah is ever Mighty, Wise. 4.56 (P)

 Allah promiseth the hypocrites, both men and women, and the disbelievers the fire of hell for their abode. It will suffive them. Allah curseth them, and theirs is lasting torment. 9.68 (P)

 …..As for those who disbelieve, theirs will be a boiling drink and painful doom because they disbelieved. 10.5 (P)

 …..those who gave no heed to Our revelations, shall have the Fires as their home in requital for their deeds. 10.8 & 9 (D)

 …But as for those who disbelieve, garments of fire will be cut out for them: boiling fluids will be poured down on their heads. 22.19 (P)

 The righteous shall return to a blessed retreat: the gardens of Eden, whose gates shall open wide to receive them. Reclining there with bashful virgins for companions, they will call for abundant food and drink. All this shall be yours on the Day of Reckoning; Our gifts can have no end. But doleful shall be the return of the transgressors. They shall burn in Hell, a dismal resting place. There let them taste their drink : scalding water, festering blood, and other putrid things. We shall say to their leaders : ‘This band shall be thrown in headlong with you. No Welcome shall await them; they shall be prompty cast into the Fire.’ 38.51-59 D

 The fruit of the Zaqqum tree shall be the sinner’s food. Like dregs of oil, like scalding water, it shall simmer in the belly. A voice will cry: ‘Seize him and drag him into the depths of Hell. The pour out scalding water over his head, saying: ‘Taste this, illustrious and honourable man! This is the punishment which you have doubted.’ 44-45-50 D

 As for the righteous, they shall be lodged in peace together amidst gardens and fountains, arrayed in rich silks and fine brocade. Yes, and We shall wed them to dark-eyed houries. Secure against all ills, they shall call for every kind of fruit; and, having died once, they shall die no more, 44.51-55 D

 They shall recline on jeweled couches face to face, and there shall wait on them immortal youths with bowls and ewers and a cup of purest wine (that will neither pain their heads not take away their reason); with fruits of their own choice and flesh of fowls that they relish. And theirs shall be dark eyed houris [virgins], chaste as hidden pearls: a guerdon [reward?] for their deeds. Then they shall hear no idle talk, no sinful speech, but only the greeting, ‘Peace! Peace!’. Those on the right hand-happy shall be those on the right hand! They shall recline on couches raised on high in the shade of thornless sidrs and clusters of talh [plantain?]; amidst gushing waters and abundant fruits, unforbidden, never-ending. We created the houries and made them virgins, loving companions for those on the right hand. 56. 15-38 (D)

l         The unbelievers among the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] and the pagans shall burn for ever in the fire of Hell. They are the vilest of all creatures. But of all creatures those that embrace the Faith and do good works are the noblest. 98.6-7 (D)


 Fight against them until idolatry is no more and God’s religion regins supreme, 2.193 D

 Warfare is ordained for you, though it is hateful unto you; but it may happen that ye hate a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that ye love a thing which is bad for you. Allah knoweth, ye know not. 2.216 P

You shall not wed pagan women, unless they embrace the Faith. A believing slave-girls is better than  an idolatress….2.221 D

Let belivers not make friends with infidels in preference to the faithful – he that does this has nothing to hope from God-except in self-defence. God admonishes you to fear Him : for to God you shall all return. 3.28 D

 You are the noblest nation that has ever been raised up for the mankind. You enjoin justice and forbid evil. 3.110 D

 Do not befriend them until they  mend their homes for the cause of God. If they desert you, seize them and put them to death wherever you find them. Look for neither friends not helpers among them. 4.89 D

Tell the unbelievers that if they mend their ways (i.e. convert to Islam) their past shall be forgiven. 8.39 D

 If you fear treachery from any of your allies, you may fairly retaliate by breaking off your treaty with them. God does not love the treacherous. 8.58 D

 ….Allah is free from obligations to the idolaters and (so is) His messenger. So, if ye repent, it will be better for you; but if ye are averse, then know that ye cannot escape Allah. Give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom to those who disbelieve. 9.3 P

O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers not your brethren for friends if they prefer disbelief to belief, such are wrong-doers. 9.23 P

You shall not pray for any of their (unbelievers) dead, not shall you attend their burial. For they denied God and His apostle and remained sinners to the last. 9.84 D

 It is not for the Prophet, and those who believe to pray for the forgiveness of idolaters even though they may be near of kin (to them) after in hath become clear that they are people of hell-fire. 9.113 P

Believers, make war on the infidels who dwell around you. Deal firmly with them. Know that God is with the righteous. 9.123 D

 Do not yield to the unbelievers, but fight them with this, most strenuously. 25.52 D

Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. And those with him are hard against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves. 48.29 P

 Believers! Shall I point out to you a profitable course that will save you: enmity and hate shall reign between us until you believe in God only. 60.4 D

l         Prophet, make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and deal sternly with them. Hell shall be their home, evil their fate. 66.9 D

anime porn

Answering claims that Islam is true

Miracles of the Quran or Islamic hoaxes?

1- The Miracle of Iron

2- Victory of the Romans and the lowest point on earth

3-The Quran on seas and rivers

4-The Quran on Human Embryonic Development

Here is the Islamic claim

And here is the reality and this

And also, this presentation by William Campbell. Another Islamic hoax.

5- The Quran on mountains

Here is the Islamic claim

And here is the reality Islamic hoax.

6-Speed of Light in the Quran?

7-The Quran on Cerebrum

8-The Quran on deep seas and internal waves

9-The Quran on expanding universe and Big Bang

10- 7 layers of the Atmosphere

11- 7 layers of the Earth

12- The Miracle of 19

13- Splitting of the Moon

What all this shows is that since there is no evidence at all that Islam is true, not a single sentence in the Quran which could not have been said by 7th century Arabs, and every single sentence in the Quran can be explained from Muhammad’s own socio-cultural background, Muslims resort to such tricks. These claims are actually Islamic hoaxes, and not miracles of the Quran. And none of the so-called ‘miracles’ which are actually hoaxes are in clear language. If Allah knew that the Dead Sea is the lowest point, why didn’t he simply say so- “Dead Sea is the lowest Point”? Simple and clear! But nothing like this is said in

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simple and clear language in the Quran. Why should there be a need to explain these ‘miracles’ in a ‘clear book’ like the Quran? The best answer to show that the Quran must not be interpreted in any other way than its obvious meaning comes from the Quran itself. The Quran repeatedly claims to be a “clear book” (5:15) “easy to understand” (44:58 , 54:22 , 54:32, 54:40) “explained in detail” (6:114), “conveyed clearly”, (5:16, 10:15) and with “no doubt” in it (2:1). And not a single of the ‘miracles’ aka hoaxes is in clear language.

It should also be remembered that when real scholars debate real scholars, they do not bring forward any of the above amateurish claims. For example, two real scholars (not showmen like Zakir Naik) of Pakistan, Javed Ahmed Ghamidi and Khaled Zaheer debated with Ali Sina of www.faithfreedom.org. In that wonderful debate, all arguments and counter-arguments are excellent and worth reading. But when Ali Sina asked for evidence that Muhammad was a Prophet of God, neither of the great debators could provide any. If these ‘Miracles of the Quran’ aka hoaxes were truly miracles, these real scholars would have definitely brought them as evidence in support of the claim that Islam is true.That great and lengthy debate can be read here.

For a full list of ‘Miracles of the Quran’ aka hoaxes, this link is very useful. Also it is very useful to see the

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following exposure of almost all claims of “Miracles in the Quran” in this link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sahnNxx0vzw

Swami Dayananda Saraswati

Swami Dayanand Saraswati has commented on 159 Ayats of Holy Quran in the 14th Chapter of his book Satyarth Prakash (Light of Truth, English translation by Dr. Chiranjiva Bhardwaj and published by Sarva Deshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha, Delhi, 1984, pp. 649-722).

Before commenting on Islam, he expressed his objectives as below:
“The object aimed at by this criticism is to contribute to the elevation of the human race and to enable all men to sift truth from falsefood by giving them some idea of the teachings of various prevalent religions, as this will afford them opportunities for friendly discussions so useful in helping men to point-out their defects and to appreciate their merits.”

“It is not our purpose to falsely condemn this or any other religion on the contrary what we aim at is that whatever is true should be recognized as such, and whatever is false should be condemned as such, so that no one should be in a position to palm off untruth for truth or hinder the progress of truth… We lay this criticism on the Mohammedan religion before all lovers of truth in the hope that they after having gone carefully through it, accept what appeals to their reason and common sense and discard what is repugnant to them.” (p. 649-50)

Some of his comments on the main aspects of Islam are quoted below:


(i) “(I begin this book) In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful (Sura 1)

The Mohammadans claim that this Quran is the word of God, but it appears from the above passage that the author of this book was some person other than God, since had it been God Himself, He would not have said :-“In the name of God”, He would have, instead said : “I write this book for the instruction of mankind.” (p. 651)

“Had the God of the Quran been the Lord of all creatures, and been Merciful and Kind to all, He would never have commanded the Mohammedans to slaughter men of other faiths, and animals, etc. If He is Merciful, will He show mercy even to the sinners ? If the answer be given in the affirmative, it cannot be true, because further on it is said in the Quran “Put Infidels to sword, “ in other words, he that does not believe in the Quran and the Propet Mohammed, is an infidel, (he should, therefore, be put to death). Since the Quran sanctions such cruelty to non-Mohammedans and innocent creatures such as cows, it can never be the Word of God.” (p. 652)

“Since the Mohammedans do not believe in the previous existence of the soul, nor that it ever did any deeds before, their God will be open to the charge of being partial by showing favour to some and disfavour to others inasmuch as it is quite unjust to bestow happiness on men or subject them to pain and suffering without paying any regard to their merits and demerits. It is also against the nature (of God) to unreasonably look at some with mercy and others with disdain and anger. Indeed He cannot act arbitrarily. When the souls have done no good or bad action in their previous lives, is it not unfair that some should receive blessings while the others not.” “Now this book, which is so full of partiality and favouritism (to some), cannot be the Word of God.” (p. 652-53)

“Now what kind of justice, wisdom or righteousness is it that one should support one’s followers even though they perpetrate injustice ? He, who causes breach of peace and himself fights as well as helps others to do so, loots other people and yet calls the loot lawful, can never be Merciful and Compassionate. Leave alone God, such a thing can never be true even of a good man. Such things make it impossible for us to believe that the Quran is the Word of God.” (p. 681-82)

“How did God send down the Quran ? Does God live high up in the skies ? If this be true, He cannot be God, being confined to a particular locality, for God is All-pervading, To carry or deliver messages is the function of a courier, and since God is confined to a particular locality, He must needs have one. And to keep an account (in dealings with others) becomes a man but no God Who is Omniscient. It follows from such statements of the Quran that it is the work of a human being, possessed of limited intelligence.” (p. 686)

“It is written in the Quran that one’s sins are forgiven by mere repentance. This encourages sin, since there is nothing to deter men from its commission. This book and its author, therefore, place a premium upon sin. Hence, it is clear that this book can not be the Work of God, nor can the Being described therein be Divine.” (p. 692)

“How funny ! That a book like this should be regarded full of wisdom even though it teaches things opposed to science, such as the creation of the heavens without visible pillars to sustain them and the fixing of the mountains in the earth with a view to keep them immovable. Even persons who are a little bit educated cannot write such nonsense or believe in such balderdash. Again, how wise is the statement that the day is entagled with the night and night with the day ! Everybody knows that day and night co-exist. The Quran cannot be a book of true knowledge, for this statement is absolutely foolish. It is not opposed to true knowledge to say that the ships run into the sea through the favour of God when in reality they are propelled by machinery and by sailors ? Would not the sign of God (a ship) sink if it was made of iron or stone ? Verily this book cannot have been written either by God or by a learned man.” (p. 698-99)

 God (Allah)

“Does God show His special mercy to those who do not deserve it ? If He does, He works great mischief, for all men will become indifferent to the practice of virtue. No one will then lead a virtuous life and hate sin, since His mercy depends upon His (arbitrary) will and not upon one’s deeds.” (p. 661)

“Does your God punish the wicked and reward the virtuous, or does He show mercy to the Mohammadans and torture others ? If the latter, He is not God. But if your God is not partial (to you), He will reward the virtuous and punish the wicked whatever religion they may profess. This being the case, the belief in the Quran and in Mohammad (as the prophet of God) becomes unnecessary. Why did God create Satan-the enemy of the human race, who has been tempting all mankind? Is He not cognizant of the future? If you say, He has created Satan just to try man, it cannot be right, because only one who is possessed of finite knowledge would do such a thing; while One who is Omniscient is already aware of the good or evil deeds of the soul.” “Now if Satan tempts all mankind, who tempted Satan ? If it be said that Satan tempts himself, why could not others tempt themselves ? Where is then the necessity of supposing Satan to be the tempter of all mankind ? If God was the tempter of the Devil, He was more devilish than the Devil. But such a thing could not be said of God. Whosoever goes astray from the right path does so through evil company and ignorance.” (p. 664-65)

“If God really aided the Mohammadans with three thousand angels in the past, why does He not help them now that their rule (in India and other countries) has greatly declined and is still declining ? The real object of this verse is to tempt the ignorant and thereby ensnare them into the Mohammadan religion.” (p. 671)

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“Had not God loved disorder, why would He have prompted them (the Muslims) to fight and befriended the quarrelsome Mohammadans ? Is God pleased with one only when he embraces the Mohammadan religion? If so, He is partial to the Mohammadans, He cannot, therefore, be the Lord of the Universe. This clearly shows that neither the Quran is the Word of God, nor is the God described therein the true God ?” (p. 667)

“If God guides whom He pleases, He might he misleading others with whom he is not pleased. He alone can be called God and apta (true teacher) who impartially guides all.” (p. 669)

“Does not God act like a tyrant when He does not forgive those who deserve forgiveness and forgives those who are not worthy of being forgiven ? The soul should not be held responsible for its actions, if God makes one virtuous or wicked just as He pleases, nor should the soul, therefore, be endowed with happiness or afflicted with pain and suffering just as a soldier if he kills a person under the direction of his superior officer is not held responsible for his act.” (p. 669)

“Why does God repay good deeds doubly if he would not do injustice even of the weight of a mote ? Why is He so partial to the Mohammedans ? He would be unjust indeed if He were to award the soul reward or punishment out of proportion to its deeds.” (p. 673)

“What proof is there that the Mohammedans will go to heaven and the non-Mohammedans to hell ? He is indeed a fine God ! May such a God as deceives others and is deceived by them always keep away from us. Let him associate with those that are hypocrites and cheats, because “Birds of a feather flock together.” Why should not they whose God deceives others be themselves cheated?. Can it be right for anyone to associate with a wicked Mohammedan and hate a good man who is other than a Mohammedan ?” (p. 675)

“The forgiveness of sin, is almost as bad as the sanction of its commission which encourages its further growth. A book whose teachings tend to encourage the commission of sin can neither be the Word of God, nor the work of an enlightened author. It is, on the contrary, one that promotes sinful conduct. It is true though that the prevention of the further commission of sin can be secured by one’s praying to God, repenting of his past conduct and by exerting himself to his utmost (to lead a virtuous life).” (p. 676)

“How destitute of compassion are God and his Prophet who order that the heads of the infidels should be cut off. Is such a God, as commands the faithful to put the infidels to sword, and sever their limbs (from their bodies) and aids them in this work, any better than Ravan, the cruel king of Ceylon? This command is the invention of the author of the Quran and is not from God but if it be from Him, our earnest prayer is that such a God may remain at a respectable distance from us.” (p. 680)

“Does God favour the Mohammedans ? If so, He is unjust because He is the Lord of all (and not of the Mohammedans only). Is your God deaf that He cannot hear you unless He is spoken to (aloud) ? Is it not wrong to couple the name of the Prophet with His name ? Where is God’s treasure that He should be so afraid of its being stolen ? Is it right to steal (the wealth of) others barring that of God and His Prophet ? Only the ignorant and the wicked can teach such things. Why is not that God, who deceives others and associates with the deceitful, hypocritical, cunning and wicked? Theses things lead one to infer that the Quran is not the Word of God. Its author must have been a hypocritical and deceitful person, otherwise such objectionable things would not have been found in it.” (p. 680)

“Now how can God be All-pervading if He lives near those who are in paradise? But if he is not All-pervading, He can neither be the Creator nor the Judge of the world. It is wrong to advise men to forsake their parents. Of course, one should not obey them if they advise one

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to do wrong, but all the same one should always serve them. If God was kind to the Mohammedans and sent down troops of angles to help them in the past, why does He not do so on ? If He punished the unbelievers and “turned unto whom He pleased,” why does He not do the same at the present time ? Could not God advance His faith without commanding His votaries to fight ? We say good-bye to such a God ! He is more of a showman than a God” (p. 682)

Is God the monopoly of the Muslims only, and have others no claim on Him? And is He partial, that He reserves His mercy only for the Muslims, and denies it to others. If by Muslims He meant “the faithful,” they do not stand in need of guidance. If God does not furnish guidance to people other than the Mohammedans, His knowledge is of no use.” (p.684)

“If God forgives all sins, He leads the entire world to unrighteousness. He is also merciless, for if a wicked man is shown mercy and forgiven, he will commit more mischief and cause suffering to may a good men. Even if the slightest offense is left unpunished, the world will become full of sin. Is God resplendent like fire ? Where is the page of destiny and who writes it ? If God dispenses justice with the aid of prophets and witnesses, He must be of limited knowledge and power. If He is not unjust and dispenses uniform justice, He must be dealing with all people according to their deserts. Deeds must have been done either in the past birth or in the present one. It is, then, clearly unjust to forgive sins, to seal the hearts, to keep people in ignorance, to let the Devil tempt them, and to subject them to torture.”

Associating Prophet Mohammad with Allah

“Why does this verse inculcate faith in Mohammad along with that in God, when the Mohammadans profess to believe in none but God, and hold that none is worthy of sharing homage with Him ? Hence they can not call God Incomparable. If it be argued that this verse only teaches that people should have faith in Mohammad as a Prophet, we should kike to know where is the necessity of Mohammad (being regarded as a Prophet). If God cannot accomplish his desired object without making him His Prophet, he is certainly powerless.” (p. 672)

“Now (the Mohammadan) God Himself has made Mohammad His partner (in Divine honours, etc.) and has Himself declared this fact in the Quran. God is so much attached to Mohammad that He has made him His partner even in paradise. It is useless to call the Mohammadan God Independent when He is dependent upon Mohammad for every little thing. Such things can never be found in a revealed book.” (p. 672)

“This (Obey God and obey the apostle V. 93.) goes to show that God is not “One without a second,” hence it is absurd for the Mohammedans to believe that it is otherwise.” (p. 676)


“When the Quran bears witness to this that God gave the book of law to Moses, it is incumbent on the Mohammedans to believe in it. All the defects found therein will, therefore, be regarded as those of the Muslim religion itself. Again what is said about the miracles is absurd. The story of miracles seems to have been concocted with a view of play upon the credulity of simple and ignorant people. All things which are against the laws of nature are false. If miracles could be wrought in those days, why can’t they be done now-a-days ? If no miracles can be worked now, it is certain that none were wrought in days gone by.” (p. 660)

“The true religion with God is Islam (III. 17).”

Is God the Lord of the Mohammadans alone ? Did not Divine religion exist at all thirteen hundred years back ? It shows that the Quran is not the word of God, but of some bigot.” (p. 70)

“If every soul shall be paid what it has earned, its sins can not be forgiven. It will be unjust to forgive sins. If God gives power to the soul without its having done anything to deserve it. He will be guilty of injustice. Can one ever bring the dead out of the living and the living out of the dead, as the laws of God are unchangeable and inviolable.

Is it not sheer prejudice to call those, who do not profess Islam infidels ? That Being can not be God who teaches that the Mohammadans should not associate even with good people of other faiths, while they may take even the wicked Mohammadans for their friends. One is, therefore, fully justified in inferring that this Quran its God and the Mohammadans are, therefore, groping in the dark. Now reader mark ! How clever Mohammad is ! He makes his God say in this verse that God will love those who follow Mohammad and even their sins will be forgiven. This shows that the heart of Mohammad was not pure. It appears that Mohammad (made or) had the Quran made in order to serve his selfish interests.” (p. 670)

“Now mark the prejudice of God and of His Prophet ! Mohammad like other men of his stamp, was well aware that if he did not stamp his religion with divine authority it would never flourish, nor would he or his followers be able to obtain help and power which might help them to live a life of ease and luxury. All this goes to show that Mohammad knew only too well how to compass his selfish ends and to deprive others of their due-a fact which proves that he was no well-wisher of humanity. Such a man can never command the trust and confidence of good and enlightened men.” (p. 674)

“Who but the Mohammedan God would be so unjust in fighting and helping others to do the same and so active in causing breaches of peace ? Now look at this religion, which sanctions wholesale robbery for the benefit of the Prophet ! Are these people any better than thugs ? God participates in the crime of robbery when he takes his share of the loot. He brings disgrace on Himself by favouring such dacoits. We are at a loss to understand whence came such a book, such a God and such a Prophet in order to disturb the happy relations between different nations of the world and thereby, inflict great suffering on them. Had not such faiths flourished in the world, all would have lived in peace with each other.” (p. 680-81)

Treatment to non-Muslims in Islam

“Where is the necessity of slaying others and of being slain on God’s path ? Why do you not say plainly that all this is meant for accomplishing your selfish ends. You hold out this inducement to people that they may fight well and help you to gain victory over your enemies and to acquire wealth and power by looting other and thereby enable you to live in luxury and enjoy sensual pleasures.” (p. 664)

“Had not such teachings existed in the Quran, the Mohammadans would not have been so cruel to the non-Mohammadans. They have greatly sinned by slaughtering the innocent. They hold than one who does not believe in the Mohammadan religion is an infidel, and that it is better to put the infidels to sword. They have always lived up to their professions in this respect. They have lost their political supremacy while “fighting” for the cause of their God. This religion does indeed teach cruelty towards the non-Mohammadans. Should theft be punished with theft. Should we also break into the house of a person because he has stolen our property ? Surely this is not right. If an ignorant man abuses us, shall we also abuse him in return ? Such things can never be taught by ? God nor by one of His enlightened votaries, nor could they be found in His Word. They can only be the utterances of an ignorant and selfish man.” (p. 666)

“This is the height of prejudice. The Quran enjoins on its believers to kill the non-Mohammedans but to spare the Mohammedans. If they kill their co-religionists by mischance, they shall have to make amends for it by freeing a believer from slavery, but if they kill non-Mohammedans, even though it be through a mistake, they shall inherit Heaven.

Such teachings deserves to be utterly discarded. Such a book, such a Prophet and such a religion do nothing but harm. The world would be better of without them. Wise men would do well to discard a religion so absurd and accept the Vedic faith which is absolutely free from error. The Mohammedans say that one who kills a Mohammedan shall be condemned to a residence in hell; on the other hand, believers in other religions contend that a man attains to heaven by killing a Mohammedan, now which to two should one believe to be true and which false ? The fact is that all false creeds begotten of ignorance should be renounced, the Vedic religion alone deserving the allegiance of all-a religion which directs every human being to follow in the footsteps of the righteous and shun the path of the wicked.” (p. 673-74)

“Mark this teaching, which, in defiance of all noble instinct, advocates the destruction of one’s very friends ! God here teaches the Mohammedans to fight with their neighbours and slaves, towage war against them and to slaughter them whenever they get a chance to. The Mohammedans have materially helped in spreading such ideas, taking their inspiration from this very book-the Quran. They should, in the present enlightened age, realize the evil nature of such a teaching and give it up. They would be gainers by doing so.” (p. 684)

Allurement of Paradise for Sensuous pleasures

“Now is it paradise or a brothel ? Should we call such a Being (as described in the Quran) God or a libertine ? No enlightened man can ever believe such a book to be the Word of God. Why does God show favouritism ? Where the women that live in paradise born here (in this world) and then went there, or were they never born at all? If they went there from here, why where they allowed to enter paradise before their husbands? Why did God violate His law of judging all persons on the last day for the sake of those women? On the other hand, if they were born there, how can they control their passions? But if they have got their husbands with them, how will God manage to provide the faithful with women when they enter paradise? Why does He not keep also men forever there in paradise just as He keeps women? This goes to show the Mohammadan God is unjust and ignorant.” (p 669-70)

“Well ! The Mohammedans cry that it is a sin to drink wine on this earth, but in their paradise streams of wine flow. It is good that Mohammedans have rendered some service to the cause of temperance here, but they have been more than compensated for this abstinence in paradise. So many women have been allotted to each man there, he would find it difficult to fix his affections on one. The place must be afflicted with maladies. It the dwellers have got bodies, they must die and if they have got no bodies, they cannot gratify their lust. What then is the use of a paradise? If you believe that Lot was a prophet, do you also believe what is recorded in the Bible that he begot children of his own daughters. If you do, it is foolish to regard such a person a prophet. If your God grants salvation to such persons and their associated He must also be like them. A being who recites ‘old wives’ tales and kills other people through prejudice cannot be God, for such a God can only live in a Mohammedan house and nowhere else.” (p. 704)

If there are gardens and orchards in paradise as stated in the Quran, they neither have existed from eternity nor can they remain there for ever, for the things which result from the combination of elements, did not exist before that combination and will surely cease to exist after Dissolution. When these things will disappear from paradise, how can the dwellers live there forever? The very fact that the Arabs have been promised cushions, cushioned seats, pillows, fruits and drinks, proves that Arabia was not in affluent circumstances at the time the Muhammadan religion was founded. It was for this reason that Mohammad entrapped the poor people into his net by holding out of them such temptations.” (p. 705)

“Perpetual happiness cannot reign where women are to be found. Where did theses women come from? Are they dwellers of paradise or have they been imported? If they have been imported, they will surely go back and if they permanently dwell there, what were they doing before the day of resurrection? Were they idling away their lives? Now look at the resplendence of God Whom all the angels except Satan obeyed by paying homage to Adam; Satan alone held aloof. God said to Satan, “I have made him with both my hands, do thou, therefore, not be proud.” This shows that the God of the Quran was two-handed person. He cannot, therefore, be Omnipresent and Omnipotent. Satan was right in saying that he was better than Adam. Why was the resentment of God excited at this? Is the house of God in the sky and not on earth? Why was Kaba at first called the house of God? How can God separate Himself from His Creation? All this creation belongs to the true God. This shows that the God of the Quran was a landlord in paradise. God cursed and rebuked Satan and sent him to jail. Satan said, “O Lord ! Release me till the day of judgment.” God being not insensible to flattery complied with his request. When Satan was free, he said, “Now I will tempt people and raise the standard of rebellion.” God retorted, “Who-ever is tempted by you will be hurled into hell by me along with thee.”

Gentle reader ! Just consider whether God tempted him or he was tempted of his own accord. If God did it, He was a greater Devil of the two, and if Satan was tempted on his own accord, other people can also be tempted likewise. Where then is the need of Satan? In so far as God let the rebel Satan loose, He also was responsible for the mischief wrought by the fiend. Who can be more unjust than the being who instigates theft and then sits in judgment over the thief? (p. 705-6)

Even young boys available in Paradise

“Of course it stands to reason that there should be youths in paradise when God has created virgins there. But we are told that the virgins in paradise are destined to be united to those male mortals who repair to paradise from this world. What about those male youths then who perpetually dwell in paradise? God has kept reticent as regards their marriage, will they also along with the virgins be surrendered to their candidate-mortals from this world? God has thrown no light on this point, and it must be regarded as a great omission on His part. If women in paradise are united to men of the same age, it is not right, since the male should always be twice as old as the female or even older. So much regarding the Mohammadan paradise. As regards the Mohammadan hell, its inmates will have to feed on (thohar) Euphobia nereifolia [This means that there are thorny trees in hell bearing thorns], and drink hot water. Such then are the sufferings they will be afflicted within hell.

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Eminent people on Islam

1. Swami Dayanand Saraswati (1824-1883)
2. Swami Vivekanand (1863-1902)
3. Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941)
4. Yogi Shri Aurobindo Ghosh (1872-1950)
5. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948)
6. Dr. Baba Saheb

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Bhim Rao Ambedkar (1891-1956)
7. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833)
8. Nirad Chandra Chaudhuri (1897-1999)
9. Jadunath Sarkar (1870-1958)

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Bipin Chandra Pal (1858-1932)
11. Maharshi Satyananda Saraswati
12. Dr. K.S. Lal (1920-2002)
13. Dr S Radhakrishnan (Ex-President of India)

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Swami Vivekananda

(All quotations taken from the Complete works of Swami Vivekanand, (Vol. I-viii).

Millions massacred through Mohammad’s teachings : If you read the Koran, you find the most wonderful truths mixed with superstitions. How will you explain it? That man (Prophet Mohammed) was inspired, no doubt, but the inspiration was as it were, stumbled upon. He was not a trained Yogi, and did not know the reason of what he was doing. Think of the good Mohammed did to the world, and think of the great evil that has been done through his fanaticism ! Think of the millions massacred through his teachings, mothers bereft of their children, children made orphans, whole countries destroyed, millions upon millions of people killed ! (Vol. I. P. 184)

Muslim rituals : The Mohammedan, who thinks that every ritual, every form, every image or ceremony used by a non-Mohammedan is sinful does not think so when he comes to his own shrine, the Caaba. Every religious Mohammedan, wherever he prays, must imagine that he is standing before the Caaba. When the makes a pilgrimage there, he must kiss the black stone in the wall of the shrine. All the kisses that have been imprinted on that stone, by millions and millions of pilgrims, will stand up as witnesses for the benefit of the faithful on the Last Day of Judgment. Then, there is the well of Zimzim. Mohammedans believe that whoever draws a little water out of that well will have sins pardoned, and he will, after the Day of Resurrection, have a fresh body, and live for ever. (Vol. 2, p. 39)

Kill who are not Muslims : The Mohammedan religion allows Mohammedans to kill all who are not of their religion. It is clearly stated in the Koran, “Kill the infidels if they do not become Mohamedans”. They must be put to fire and sword. (Vol. 2, p. 335)

Killing unbelievers is surest way to Heaven : The more selfish a man, the more immoral he is. And so also with the race. That race which is bound down to itself has been the most cruel and the most wicked in the whole world. There has not been a religion that has clung to this dualism more than that founded by the Prophet of Arabia, and there has not been a religion which has shed so much blood, and been so cruel to other man. In the Kuran there is the doctrine that a man who does not believe these teachings should be killed; it is a mercy to kill him ! And the surest way to get to heaven, where there are beautiful ‘houris’ and all sorts of sense-enjoyments, is by killing these unbelievers. Think of the bloodshed there has been in consequence of such beliefs ! (Vol. 2, p. 352-53)

Every step forward was made with the sword : Think of little sects, born within a few hundred years out of fallible human brains, making this arrogant claim of knowledge of the whole of God’s infinite truth ! Think of the arrogance of it ! If it shows anything, it is this : how vain human beings are. And it is no wonder that such claims have always failed, and, by the mercy of the Lord, are always destined to fall. In this line, the Mohammedans were the best off; every step forward was made with the sword – the Koran in the one hand and the sword in the other : “Take the Koran, or you must die; there is no alternative !”. You know from history how phenomenal was their success; for six hundred years nothing could resist them, and then there came a time when they had to cry halt. So will be with other religions if they follow the same methods. (Vo. 2, p. 369-70).

Universal brotherhood for Muslims only : Mohammedans talk of universal brotherhood, but what comes out of that in reality? Why, anybody who is not a Mohammedan will not be admitted into the brotherhood; he will more likely have his throat cut. (Vol. 2, p. 80)

Use of graves in place of images : The Mohammedans use the graves of their saints and martyrs almost in the place of images. (Vol. 3, p. 61)

God as a child : For the Mohammedans, it is impossible to have this idea of God as a child; they will shrink from it with a kind of horror. But the Christian and the Hindu can realize it easily because they have the baby Jesus and the baby Krishna. (Vol. 3, p. 96)

No temple building in a Muslim country : It is here that Indians build temples for Mohammedans and Christians; nowhere else. If you go to other countries and ask Mohammedans or people of other religions to build a temple for you, see how they will help. They will instead try to break down your temple and you too, if they can. (Vol. 3, p. 114).

Word Hindu covers all those who live in India : The word (‘Hindu’), therefore, covers not only Hindus proper, but Mohammedans, Christians, Jains and other people who live in India. (Vol. 3, p. 110).

Allah-ho-Akbar for centuries : Wave after wave of barbarian conquest has rolled over this devoted land of ours. “Allah-ho-Akbar !” has rent the skies for hundreds of years, and no Hindu knew what moment would be his last. This is the most suffering and the most subjugated of all the historic lands in the world. Yet we still stand practically the same race, ready to face difficulties again and again, if necessary, and not only so, of late there have been signs that we are not only strong but ready to go out, for the sign of life is expansion. (Vol. 3, p. 369-70).

Only they are right ! : Ignorant persons… not only deny the right of every man to interpret the universe according to his own light, but dare to say that others are entirely wrong, and they alone are right. If they are opposed, they begin to fight. They say that they will kill any man who does not believe as they believe, and as the Mohammedans do. (Vol. 4, p. 52).

Worshipping saints : The Mohammedans from the beginning stood against any idol worship. They would have nothing to do with worshipping the Prophets or the Messengers, or paying any homage to them; but, practically, instead of one Prophet, thousands upon thousands of saints are being worshipped. (Vol. 4, p. 121)

Mohammedans most sectarian : Now, some Mohammedans are the crudest in this respect, and the most sectarian. Their watchword is. “There is one God, and Mohammed is His Prophet”. Everything beyond that not only is bad, but must be destroyed forthwith; at moment’s notice, every man or woman, who does not exactly believe in that, must be killed; everything that does not belong to this worship must be killed; everything that does not belong to this worship must be immediately broken; every book that teaches anything else must be burnt. From the Pacific to the Atlantic, for five hundred years, blood ran all over the world. That is Mohammedanism ! Nevertheless, among these Mohammedans, wherever there was a philosophic man, he was sure to protest against these cruelties. (Vol. 4, p. 126)

Sword flashed for hundreds of years in India : Wave after wave had flooded this land, breaking and crushing everything for hundreds of years. The sword has flashed, and “Victory unto Allah” had rent the skies of India; but these floods subsided, leaving the national ideals unchanged. (Vol. 4, p. 159)

Kafir deserves to be butchered : To the Mussulmans, the Jews or the Christians are not object of extreme detestation; they are, at the worst, men of little faith. But not so the Hindu. According to him, the Hindu is idolatrous, the hateful Kafir; hence in this life he deserves to be butchered; and in the next, eternal hell is in store for him. The utmost the Mussulman kings could do as a favour to the (Hindu) priestly class – the spiritual guides of these Kafirs – was to allow them somehow to pass their life silently and wait for, the last moment. This was again sometimes considered too much kindness! If the religious ardour of any (Muslim) king was a little more uncommon, there would immediately follow arrangements for a great yajna by way of Kafir slaughter! (Vol. 4, p. 446)

Mohammedans brought murder here : You know that the Hindu religion never persecutes. It is the land where all sects may live in peace and amity. The Mohammedans brought murder and slaughter in their train, but until their arrival peace prevailed (Vo. 5, p. 190)

In India the Mohammedans were the first who ever took the sword. (Vol. 5, p. 197)

Loss of a Hindu, gain of an enemy : When the Mohammedans first came, we are said – I think the authority of Ferishta, the oldest Mohammedan historian – to have been six hundred millions of Hindus. Now we are about two hundred millions. (That means population down from 60 crores to 20 crores). And then every man going out of the Hindu pale is not only a man less, but an enemy the more.

“Again, the vast majority of Hindu perverts to Islam and Christianity are perverts by sword, or the descendants of these.” (Vo. 5, p. 233)

Mohammedan conquest had to fall back : The wave of Mohammedan conquest, which had swallowed the whole earth, had to fall back before India. (Vol. 5, p. 528)

Hashashin became ‘assassin’ : Hashshashin has became our word ‘assassin’ because an old sect of Mohammedanism killed non-believers as a part of its creed. (Vol. 7, p. 40)

Islam caused great violence : The Mohammedans used the greatest violence. (Vol. 7, p. 217).

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States with high Muslim growth



In addition to the data given in Chapter 6 along with the Map 6.1 as well as Table C-T4 in Appendix C, this Note gives additional data on regions of high Muslim growth. It will be useful to refer to this Table and Map while reading this Note. Part I of the Note deals with influx from Bangladesh and Part II with other Indian States and regions.

A country normally keeps its borders well protected against aggression, both physical as well as demographic. And India partitioned on a religous basis and having a large concentration of minotities on its borders should be even more vigilant. Prompt and effective action has long been overdue, and unless urgent steps are taken, the demographic balance in these regions which has already been severely affected, will lead to further partitions of the country in the near future. North East India has become highly unstable due to the influx of Muslims from Bangladesh and missionary activities of the Christians in the tribal areas. Appendix C, Table C-14 shows that there is a large selective increase in the Muslim population in the districts bordering Bangladesh as well as Nepal (see map) making our notthern and eastern borders vulnerable.


Bangladesh has been constituted by partitioning Bengal essentially on the basis of Muslim majority districts. No effort was made to have well defined defined borders which could be adequately protected. The minorities were also left uundisturbed although an exchange of population would have been a proper long term solution. Thus in 1941, in today’s Bangladesh the Hindus constituted 30% of the total population and in West Bengal (of Pre-1956 State Reorganisation) Muslims constituted 29%. But in 1991 due to massive migration into India of both Hindus and Muslims from Bangladesh, the Hindus constitute only 11% in Bangladesh, whereas the Muslims are close to 24% in today’s West Bengal. The position of Assam and other adjoining states is similar.

Another point to be borne in mind is that there a simultaneous migration of both Hindus and Muslims frim Bangladesh. We find that predominantly Hindus migrated in the period from 1947 to 1971. Subsequently the migration has been mostly of Muslims who have come here to better their economic conditions. We may not be far off the mark if we put a total migration close to thirty million Hindus and Muslims since Independence. These migrations have put an immense strain on the neighboring states. The state governments due to vote bank politics have been apathetic to the Muslim migration. Sri Baljit Rai1 has  dealt with this subject exhaustively exhaustively and we have given below a number of his observations and statistics.

Even the International agencies have commented on this migration. Thus the World Population Prospects, 1994 Revision of the UN states: ‘The 1991 population census of Bangladesh. even after adjustments for under remuneration, was over five million fewer persons than expected. The reasons appeared to be both lower levels of immigration to India and elsewhere….The upward revision of the population of India is the result of Upwardly revised estimates of migration from Bangladesh’ (P. 137). As a result they have increased the Indian population estimate by 4.8 million. Another publication, ‘Future Population of the World. What can We Assume Today’s state: ‘According to statistics of foreign born, India was the second largest migragion receiving country in the world in 1980. Most of the migrants thus indentified had moved to India from Bangladesh or Pakistan, probably as a result of partition.’ (P. 347)

While the Bangladeshi leaders have been vociferously denying any migration of their citizens into India, their intellectuals have already started talking  of lebensraum for their burgeoning population, For example a Bangladesh  intellectual Mr. Sadeq Khan in his article ‘The Question of Lebensraum’ published in ‘Holiday’, Dacca on 18-10-1991, has pur forward that by the first decade of twenty first century the population would have expanded so much that the problem of lebensraum or living space would be very grim and that no amount of population or family planning can change the situation. A natural overflow of population pressure is therefore very much on cards and will not be restrained by barbed wire or border patrol measures. The natural trend of population overflow is towards the sparsely populated land of the south-east in the Arakan side and of the north-east in the Seven Sister side of the Indian sincontinent’. It has of course been conveniently forgotten by the author that this migration has already been taking place for several decades with no effort on the part of Indian authorities to prevent it. This ‘The Morning Sun’ of Dhaka in its issue of 4-8-1991 reports under the caption ‘One Crore People Missing’, that there is a differece of about one crore in the prelominary total population estimate of the 1991 census of 10.80 crores and the official figure of 11.75 crore.

It will readily be seen that the population increase in these areas has been significantly higher than the general Indian increase. Also although Hindus in Bangladesh have migrated in large numbers due to respression, the migration of Muslims is far greater. Mr. Swapan Dasgupta in his article ‘Frontiers of our nationhood’ published in The Telegraph dated 14-3-1992 states that, ‘all evidence suggests that Muslim migrants from Bangladesh outnumber their Hindu counterparts by as much as 3 : 1’. We shall now study below the problem of migration and the consequent demographic imbalances in the states of Bengal, Bihar and Assam.


This state having only 3% of its population and consequently has the highest population density of 766 persons per sq. km in the country i.e. even higher than that of Bangladesh. Its level of poverty may be imagined from the fact that in 1976 as against the national average of 40% poulation below the poverty line, 70% in the sate were below the line. Hence it is a great pity that it has to bear the onslaught of immigration from Bangladesh. The international border is extremely unnatural and runs through flat territory and river beds and is no impediment to anyone to travel in either direction. When the rivers dry in summer, crossing the border in these strectches becomes very easy.

The illegal immigrants have succeeded in creating a five to ten kilometre Muslim belt along the border so that infiltration is simplified for them. The Census of India 1961 General Report of West Bengal and Sikkim states: ‘It will be seen that of the total number of 6,985,287 Muslims of West Bengal, 2,012928 or 28.92 per cent live in 50 border police stations which account for only 15.55 per cent of the general population. In all these police stations together, the Muslims constitute 37.06 per cent of the total population. This average is exceeded in three didtinct zones of particularly heavy Muslim concentration, each consisting of a chain of contiguous border police stations. These zones are (1) Chopra-Islampur-Goalpokhar, (2) Kaliachak-Shamshirganj-Suti-Raghunathgunj-Lalgola Bhagawangola-Raninagar-Jalangi-Karimpur and (3) Sarupnaga-Baduria-Basirhat.’ (P.222) The accompanying Statement shows that in some of the areas the percentage is as high as 80. Unfortunately subsequent census reports to our knowledge have not analysed the prevailing situation.

As result of this strategy the Muslim decadal increase has been very high as compared to general increase in the 1981-91 decade. This has been corroborated by the detection of Bangladeshi infiltrators by the following agencies :

Agency      Period                       Hindu           Muslim     Others

W.Bengal Police 1972-91                63762           124408       666

Border Security Force1977-91       64125           151175       2865

It may be noted that for every Hindu inflitrator detected, over two Muslims were apprehended. The seriousness of the problem can be gauged from the Report in the Statesman of 25-9-1992 captioned ‘Bangla influx could upset India’s demography’ in which theu quote, “Mr. Santimoy Roy, a leading leftist intellectual and a consultant at the Centre for South Asian Studies, who is also an expert on Bangladesh that at least 10 million Bangladeshi nationals had sneaked into Indian territory during the last decade posing serious problems for the country.”

“Interestingly, Mr. Roy said that Bangladesh’s population, according to the 1991 census-was less than what it should have been, as had been estimated by the Bangladeshi Government and the United nations earlier. While the 1991 Bangladeshi census shows the total population figure as 104.7 million, according to earlier estimate by the Bangladeshi Government, it should have been between 112 and 114 million. He said that going by UN predictions, the current population figure in Bangladesh should have been between 117 and 118 million.”

“……According to Mr. Roy, this shortfall is mainly due to the influx of Bangladeshis into India. The growth rate of population in the Hindu populated districts were much lower than the national average rate of 2.01 percent.”

A study by South Asia Research Society, Calcutta has shown that based  on the sample surveys conducted by the Registrar General of India, the natural population increase in West Bengal during 1891-91 stands at 21.9%. The actual population growth rate stood at 24.73% during this decade i.e. 2.8% higher, which can largely be accounted for by the influx of people from Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and other regions of India. This corresponds to about 1.5 millions or about 11% of the total population increase. The actual number of outsiders is likely to be much higher, because a very large number of them have presumably escaped detection by Census personnel.

It has been estimated that about 2.95 million Bengali speaking Hindis have enntered into India (mainly West Bengal) during 1974-91 as a result of ‘missing Hindu population.’ This is over and above over three million Hindu refugees permanently leaving East Pakistan for India in the course of the 1971 liberation struggle, most of whom did not permanently return to Bangladesh and many millions during the partition trauma. Since the extent of Muslim infiltration during 1971-91 awaits appraisal, it is fair to conclude that at least 13-14 million migrants and infiltrators have crossed over from Bangladesh to India during this period indcluding about one million Bihari Muslims stranded in Pakistan. That the number of Muslim migrants is fat higher is corroborated by the fact that in all districts of West Bengal the decadal increase of Muslims is far higher than Hindus during 1981-91 and is more than doubld in  Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Midnapore, Bankura and 24 Parganas. Mr. T. V. Rajeshwar estimates the number at 15 million of which about seven million reside in West Bengal, five in Assam, two in Bihar and one in other parts of the country.


After the conquest of Bengal, the Muslims turned their attention to Assam. But the brave ahom rulers defeated the invaders in several battles, and except for areas like Goalpara no other part of Assam could be permanently occupied by the Muslims until the British took over in 1826. They started tea plantations in a big way for which they imported ‘coolies’ from other parts of India, who howeverr merged with the local population in due course. In 1853, Assam was made a part of Bengal Presidency. Since the province proved too unwieldy to rule, Assam was again detached and made as separate unit in 1874 with the Bengali districts of Sylhet and Cachar attached to it. Neither the Bengalis nor Assamese were happy with this arrangement. But the district which wreaked havoc on Assam was Mymensingh, which is now a part of Bangladesh.

If we look at the census figures of 1871, the Assam of that time consisting of districts of Darrang, Kamrup, Lakhimpur, Nowgong and Sibsagar had barely 6% Mislims. After attaching the districts of Cachar, Sylhet and Goalpara, the situation changed as follows

Table C-N1 – Muslim Population of Assam Districts in 1874

District                             Population                Muslim                           %

in 1874                      Population               Muslims

Darrang                             235,300                       13,859                        5.9

Kamrup                             561,681                       45,823                        8.2

Lakhimpur                             121,267                       3.826                          3.1

Nowgong                             256,390                       10,066                        3.9

Sibsagar                             296,589                       12,619                        4.3

Goalpara                             444,761                       89,916                        20.1

Total                             1,915,988                    176,109                      9.2

Cachar                             205,027                       74,361                        36.3

Sylhet                             1,719,539                    854,131                      49.7

Grand Total                             3,840,554                    1,104,601                   28.8

Now the Bengali Muslim factor  began to operate viciously. It was dormant until the partition of Bengal by Curzon in 1905 when the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam was formed. Fifteen districts of Bengal mostly constituting today’s Bangladesh were tagged on to Assam which now lost its identity. What the Moguls and other Muslim emperors could not achieve became now possible and the penetration of Islam began in a big way. The assault was basically led bythe adjoing Mymensingh district. Even in 1901 this district was heavily populated (618 persons per sq. mile) of which Muslims formed 71.4 percent. The ‘Mymensinghia’ was typically a hard working farmer, violent in nature and hence tended towards crime and lawlessenss. They turned out to be an unmitigated curse for Assam. Although the partition was annulled in 1912, this trend continues without any break even to this day.

When we refer to the census data, we find that the 1901 census indicated very little immigration apart from the immigration of tea garden labourers. The 1911 census showed a significant change and the Muslim population increased by 24.83% with most of the increase being confined to Goalpara. During the next decade the Mymensinghias pushed forward to Kamrup and Nowgong and the increase was now 37.61% for the 1921-31 decade. Districtwise data is available from 1931 indicates the continuation of the influx on a large scale. M. Kar in his book, ‘Muslims in Assam’ says that “the total number of Muslims in the Brahmaputra valley in 1941 was 16.96,978 against the total Hindu population of 32,22,377.

The trauma of partition resulted in Hindus from Bangladesh to come to India in large numbers. Hence the percentage of Muslims in Assam came down slightly in 1951 although they also used the opportunity to cross the porous borders. This is indicated by an increase of 56.5% over their 1931 population.

This large exodus of Bangladeshi Muslims has resulted in a far higher growth of Assam’s population both total and Muslim, as compared to India’s in the pre-Independence period as seen in the Table below :

Table C-N2 – Decadal Increase of Assam’s Population

Year                 Population (Thousand)                   % Decadal Increase

State                Muslim             State           Muslim            India

1901                3,290                  495

1911                3,849                  624                     17.0             26.2                  5.7

1921                4,637                  869                     20.5             39.3                  0.3

1931                5,560               1,267                     19.9             45.7                11.1

1941                6,695               1,683                     20.4             32.9                14.2

1951                8.029               1,982                     19.9             17.8                13.4

1901-51                                                                    144.0           33.04                51.6

The disturbed conditions in Bangladesh prompted Hindus to immigrate to India in the 1951-61 decade. This is reflected in the increase of 35.0% in total population (as compared to 21.5% for the country) and 33.5% of that of HINDUS. Surprisingly the Muslim population grew faster by 38.4% in this period reflecting the exodus of Muslims from Bangladesh. The corresponding figures for the turbulent 1961-71 decade are 35.0% total, 36.1% HINDUS and 31.0% Muslim.

The General Report on Assam of the 1961 Census of India sums up the change in the major districts of Assam during 1901 and 1961 as shown in Table C-N3.

It will be seen that the Muslim migration continued unabated even after partition and is partially masked by the simultaneous migration of Hindus from Bangladesh. In 1981 the census was to taken due to disturbed conditions in the state. Mr. Rai has termed the 1991 census as a fraud in view of the fact that the increase in the population of Assam between 1971 and 1991 is much lower than the other North Eastern states (so called seven sister) The noted demographer Mr. Ashish Bose also comments, “The earlier projection (as of 1989) put the figure as 24.8 million. the actual census count in 1991 revealed a figure of 22.3 million. Compared to the 1981 projected figure of 19.9 million for Assam, the rate of growth of Assam’s population would have been only 12.1 percent. This would have implied a high degree of under-enumeration which would not be surprising in view of the disturbed conditions there even in 1991. The Census Commission, however, chose to rewrite demographic history by adjusting the 1981 population of Assam by interpolating the population of Assam in 1981 by taking the figures for 1971, 1991. … We believe that the projected population of Assam for 1991 was a more realistic figure than the actual count. It is also not necessary to adjust the 1981 figure of Assam.”

Table C-N3 – Percent Muslims in Assam District

1961      1951       1941       1931      1921      1911      1901

Assam 23.39     22.60      22.92      20.75     17.07     14.63    13.57

Goalpara        43.32     42.94      46.23      43.89     41.48     35.19    27.76

Kamrup         29.36     29.29      29.07      24.61     14.61       9.66      9.10

Darrang         19.35     17.03      16.29      11.46       7.61       5.39      5.16

Lakhimpur       5.64       4.66        4.76        3.44       2.56       2.86      3.22

Nowgong       41.24     40.54      38.53      31.60     17.73       5.20      4.83

Sibsagar          5.83       5.82        4.98        4.71       4.25       4.30      4.16

Cachar          39.14     38.49      42.18      40.06     37.61     37.60    38,06

Note : Assam here includes Mizoram and Meghalaya


In Bihar the two main areas subject to heavy  Muslim immigration from Bangladesh are the old Purnea district and of late the Santhal Parganga. Purnea was earlier a part of Bengal Presidency, and hence Bangladeshi Muslims known as Bhatia Muslims (similar or Mymensinghias in behaviour) could easily settle down there as they did in Assam. Even in 1901 they constituted 41% of the population. Even after 1947, the migration has continued unabated as will be seen from the census figures. Literacy is quite low and was approximately around 20% as per the 1991 census.

The Santhal Pargana district which has now been split in Sahibgunj, Dumka, Godda and Deogarh districts has of late shown significant increase in Muslim population which has increased from 13.8% in 1961 to 18.3% in 1991. It appears that the migrants to West Bengal are spilling into these adjacent Bihar areas. This has to be confirmed by a proper study.

The Census Department has done a study on the movement of migrants from Bangladesh during 1951-61 in their Paper No 1 of 1963. They have studied the population growth in Bangladesh by considering their census statistics for 1951 and 1961 and find that large fluctuations in percentage changes as well as sex ratio during 1951-61 suggest considerable out-migration of Hind and Muslim population from Bangladesh. They have assumed a decadal growth of 30% for Mulsims and 25% for Hindus and computed the increase and then compared it with the actual increase. After doing this exercise for each district and division of Bangladesh, they have estimated that the out-migration of Muslims has been 1.004 million and that of Hindus 2.170 million. This figure has then been compared with the districtwise population changes in the states of Bihar (Purnea District), West Bengal, Assam and Tripura for this period based on estimated net increase of 27.5% for Muslims and 25% for Hindus. Their results are summarised below.

Table C-N4 – Estimated Immigration in 1951-61 Decade

State                    Excess Hindus                    Excess Muslims

Assam                          0.527                                      0.221

West Bengal                1.584                                      0.459

Tripura                          0.267                                      0.055

Bihar                                  Nil                                      0.298

Total                            2.378                                      1.033

It will be seen that there is a very close correspondence between the out-migration from Bangladesh and in-migration into India. We wonder why this exercise has not been repeated in subsequent censuses and strongly urge the Census Department and other Demographic Institutes that it is done forthwith for all censuses subsequent to 1961 census.

The growth of Muslim population for the state as a whole was considerably lower than the all India Muslim growth during 1901-41 although it was higher than the Hindu growth in Bihar. The change is also not spectacular in any district although the decrease in Purnea district in this period is difficult to explain. Here there could have been a migration to Assam. An idea of the growth of population among the Muslims in absolute numbers in Bihar can be had from the Table below :

Table C-N5 -Increase of Muslim Population in Bihar

Census      No. of          %                   +/-                         Percent Decadal

Year       Muslims    Muslims         Variation                      Variation

Muslim                   General

1901 3,421,908     12.05

1911 3,550,879     12.03            +128,971             +3.77                       +3.67

1921 3,574,099     12.25              +23,220             +0.65                        -0.66

1931 4,142,743     12.72            +568,644           +15.91                     +11.45

1941 4,719,200     12.91            +576,457           +13.91                    + 12.20

1951       4,373,360     11.58             -345,840              -7.33                     +10.27

1961       5,785,631     12.45         +1,412,271           +32.29                    + 19.77

1971       7,594,000     13.48         +1,808,000           +31.25                     +21.30

1981       9.875,000     14.12         +2,281,000           +30.04                     +24.07

1991       12,788,00     14.81           2,913,000           +29.50                     +23.54

We see that except in the 1941-51 decade, when there was a small exodus of Muslim population to Pakistan, the Muslims have shown a consistently higher growth rate than rest of the population. This decline was more than made up by 1961 due to reverse migration as indicated elsewhere. The increase has been particularly large in the 1971 districts of Saharsa, Purnea and Santhal Parganas, where the Census of India, General Report on Bihar estimates an increase of 468,000 excess population of Muslims during 1951-61 based on the standard growth of 27.5%.

Other States

Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana

We consider these states together since the high Muslim growth areas of Delhi and Haryana are contiguous with North Western areas of Uttar Pradesh. In Uttar Pradesh there has been an appreciable increase in certain regions as seen below.

India            UP          North West         North East     Rest of UP

% Muslims

1951 10.43         14.28            24.24                   17.28                    10.30

1961 10.69         14.63            24.77                   18.46                    10.45

1971 11.21         15.48            25.64                   20.70                    10.98

1981 11.76         15.93            26.40                   21.63                    11.19

1991 12.59         17.33            29.00                   23.22                    12.05

% Decadal Increase

1951-61 0.26           0.35              0.53                     1.18                      0.15

1961-71 0.52           0.85              0.87                     2.24                      0.53

1971-81 0.55           0.45              0.76                     0.93                      0.21

1981-91 0.83           1.40              2.60                     1.59                      0.86

Note : North-West and North-East UP have been defined Table 6.10

1.   It will readily be seen that the growth of Muslim population in UP is much higher than the All India growth (except 1971-81 decade) although UP is not a border state

2.   Within UP, North West and North East regions have grown much faster. The rest of the state has a growth similar or lower than the All India growth

3.   In 1951-61 decade, growth in the state is only slightly higher than the Indian growth. But the North West and particularly North East has grown quite rapidly

4.   The 1961-71 decade shows accelerated growth in the state. The North East has again grown quite rapidly.

5.   In the 1971-81 decade, the state and all India growth are similar. But yet these two regions have grown far above the state average (refer discussions in Chapter 5).

6.   The 1981-91 decade is high for all regions. The growth in North West is now explosive and closer to the growth in North Kerala. Even the ‘Rest’ category of the state has grown appreciably, its decadal growth being similar to the 1951-81 period put together. Table C-T4 and Map 6.1 indicate the districts in which this growth has taken place.

If we look at the map we find that these two regions along with the districts in Bihar enclose Nepal. There are reports that all along this border Muslim dominated regions have been recently formed in Nepal also. No wonder that terrorist organisations like ISI can easily operate and infiltrate in the country from here.

The North Western region is also contiguous with similar regions in Haryana and also Delhi and is close to the North Eastern region of Rajasthan. In fact we see an almost contiguous belt of high Muslim growth region from Pakistan to Bangladesh and beyond. It is for the experts to determine the reasons and significance of such selective growth. This becomes important since in districts like Agra, Sitapur, Lucknow, Fatehpur, Unnao, Sultanpur, Deoria (9.25% growth between 1961-81) and Ghazipur, the growth has been negative in the 1981-91 decade. Many of these districts are in Central and Estern UP. In this movement only due to job opportunities?

In the following districts of Uttar Pradesh not covered by the above regions and included in the ‘Rest’ category in Table C-4, the Muslim growth in the 1981-91 decade has been significantly high :

Mathura (1.73%), Kheri (1.58%), Hardoi (1.75%), Farukkabad (1.53%), Pratapgarh (2.31%), Varanasi (2.40%), Nainital (2.32%), Aligarh (1.46%) and Jaunpur (1.40%. These areas have been marked on the map and it will be seen that many of them are close to the high growth regions and will eventually make both of them contiguous. Dehradun has only a slightly lower growth at 1.30%.

Delhi presents an interesting case. Before Independence Muslims constituted about 30% of the population. In 1951 it had come down to 5.73% and was steadly until 1961. Afterwards it has increased by 3.62% between 1961 and 1991, the growth being as high as 1.70% in the 1981-91 decade. Being a metropolitan area and the national capital, the population in general of Delhi has grown very rapidly. But the Muslims gave grown much faster than the HINDUS in this period. It is generally conceded that Bangladeshi Muslim immigrants have settled down in Delhi in a big way.

Indian Punjab have over 30% Muslims in the pre-Independence period. They migrated to Pakistan during partition except from the district to Gurgaon which had16.91% Muslims in 1951. This district is contiguous with Delhi and now a part of Haryana. Faridabad district was carved out of it in the 1971-81 decade. Along with Delhi its Muslim population has also grown by 3.83% from 1951 to 1991. In the present district of Gurgaon it is 34.41% in 1991, with its rural areas being as hiigh as 42%.


It will be seen that the Muslim growth in general in Rajasthan is lower than that of India. But the North East and Kota region has growh faster (Table C-T4). The rest of the state has grown at a very much lower rate.

Although we do not have full statistics for 1951, the following observation in the Census of india 1961 Report on Rajasthan gives a clue to the immigration of Pakistani Muslims into the border districts. The Report says, ‘in the population of the Muslims the highest increase (71.83%) was found in Ganganagar district. The increase was high in tehsils bordering Pakistan viz. Ganganagar (117.01%), Karanpur and Padampur (94.93%) and Raisinghnagar and Anupgrah (256.34%). Tehsils Hanumangarh and Suratgarh and Nohar and Bhadra also show increases to the tune of 51.10 and 54.18 percent respectively. In the border district of Bikaner, Muslims have increased by 26.05% while in Jaisalmer district they increased by 67.00%. In Barmer, which is also a border district the decadal increase has been to the order of 68.42%. It may be noted that while in its Barmer, Sheo and Chotan tehsils, which have common border with Pakistan, the rate of Increase of Muslim population was as much as 75.39%. In the tehsils Pachpadra and Siwana, which are not on the border the growth rate was mereky 15.47%.

We find that during the decade of 1981-91 apart from the North Eastern districts of Rajasthan mentioned in Table 5.10, the districts of Jaisalmer and Bharatpur recorded and increase of Muslim population of 0.93 and o.89% respectively. Tonk also grew by 0.75% justr equalling overall Rajasthan growth. The increase in jaisalmer is alarming since it is a border district and diffucult to police as it is mostly a thinly populated desert.

Gujerat, Maharashtra and Andhra

After considering the northern states, we shall now come to the peninsular India, We shall consider the above states together since they largely constitute the northern and central Deccan plateau and the high growrh Muslim areas in them are fairly contiguous. The only exception is the border district of Kutch in Gujerat where the Muslim population has grown by 0.86% in the 1981-91 decade. When  viewed along with the increase in the border district ofJaisalmer in Rajasthan, the sinister designs of Pakistan are clear. Unless we are vigilant the western borders of the country will aso be subject to large scale infiltration like the eastern borders at present.

When we look at the map, we see that there is a non-contiguous belt extending from Bombay to Hyderabad. The growth in these regions is perhaps not as alarming as in the northern or southern regions but still it is large, particularly when compared with adjacent states of Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. It starts from the western coast (Mumbai/Thane), then covern Nashik, some districts of Marathwada and Vidarbha in central Maharashtra and then extends to north western Andhra Pradesh’s district of Nizamabad. The 1971 district of Hyderabad now comprising of Hyderabad and Ranga Reddy districts has grown by 1.22% during 1981-91 decade, the growths being 3.45% and o.45% respectively. The northern Adilabad district has also grown by 0.71% during 1981-91. The two metropolitan cities of Mumbai and Hyderabad are included in this area. The relative growth of Muslims in the remaining areas of the states of Maharashtra and Andhra is quite low between 1961 and 1991 and practically nil in 1981-91 decade.

Goa, Karnataka And Kerala

Goa is a small state between Maharashtra and and Karnataka on the Western coast. The Muslim population is also rather small although it is grwoing rapidly. What is important, howerver, is that the high growth coastal region starts from Goa as seen in the map and may spread northwards to Maharashtra in future since the population in the old Ratnagiri district in Maharashtra is already rather high (7.26% in 1991).

Adjoining Goa in the south are the coastal districts of Uttar and Dakshin Kannada of Karnataka, where the growth of the Muslim population since 1961 has been quite high only to be overtaken by the still higher growth of the adjoining northern coastal Kerala districts. These two districts together have shown am amazing growth of 4.51% during 1961 to 1991 and 1.53% during the 1981-91 decade only to be eclipsed by their southern Kerala neighbors. Whether it is entirely due to high fertility or migration has to be looked into. The adjacent districts of Shimoga, Chitradurga and Kodagu (Coorg) have aslo shown high growth rates in the same period. The contiguous district of Dharwad has shown a rather high growth rate of 1.12% during 1981-91. The other major region is the Bangalore urban districts. Coming to the state as whole, there was a slight reduction in Muslim percentage during the 1951-61 decade. The growth has been slightly lower than the national growth subsequently.

We have already discussed the position of Kerala in detail in Chapter 6. It will be seen that there are two phases in the growth of Muslim and Christian communities. Ther latter has grown in the pre-Independence period, mainly in the southern Travancore and Cochin states due to intensive missionary activities. It is obvious that the state rulers did not pay sufficient attention to the demographic changes in their state. The relative growth of the Muslims, mainly concentrated in the Malabar district of British India, was negligible in this period and until the 1961 census.

In Kerala itself, the Muslim growth is quite high in the northern districts of Kozhikode (Wayanaad) and Malappuram. The neighboring districts of Kannur (Kasargod) and Palakkad in Kerala and Dakshin Kannada in Karnataka have also shown a growth of 2.50%, 2.24% and 1.64% respetively in the 1981-91 decade showing that this area is gradually expanding. In fact the state growth is the highest in the whole country as seen in Table 5.11. If we include the numerous Muslim NRI, mostlu in the Gulf, the growth will still be higher. Table C-T4 shows that even their growth in the rest of the state, unlike most other states, is higher than the all India growth.

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Demography of Islam in India

‘Demography’, they say, ‘is destiny.’ The ultimate measure of the success or failure of a people is not only in their numbers but also in the content of their civilization which alone enables them with the skills to survive when confronted by forces threatening their destruction. The academic, intellectual and policy-influencing class in post-Independence India has considered it politically incorrect and improper to undertake any serious study of the comparative numbers of the adherents of different religions in this country. Demographers of other nations of the world, however, routinely and as a matter of course, collect data and keep studying the relative numbers of different peoples inhabiting their territories, and both predict and analyze changing trends in the population and its demography.

The Indian subcontinent today is inhabited by two distinct religious and perhaps civilisational groups: the Hindus (and this includes adherents of all faiths which originated in this nation-civilization) and the adherents of the Abrahamic religions (and this in includes the Christians and the Muslims*). In this chapter we propose to study the relative proportion of the Muslim population of India vis a-vis the Hindus keeping in view the long historical perspective on this issue, and to derive future trends from this historical experience. Key statistics available on the subject are given in this Chapter and in Appendix C to enable the reader to draw his own conclusions. It will become apparent after studying the available data on Muslim demography that if urgent steps are not taken to correct the emerging imbalance, the above phrase will be literally true by the end of the twenty-first century with the likelihood of Hindus being wiped out from most, if not all, of the subcontinent.

Although Islam entered the subcontinent in the middle of the seventh century and ruled considerable portions of the territory for around eight hundred years, a spectacular increase in their relative growth appears to have come about only after the advent of British rule. It is very difficult to give a single convincing reason for this phenomenon. But as things stand, even without any efforts at religious conversion, Muslims are likely to overtake the Hindus in numbers, in the subcontinent, around the middle of this century. This will happen even earlier if Christian missionaries meanwhile manage to ‘harvest’ our souls in keeping with their recently stated objective.

We have little information about Muslim demography in the country until the British started to conduct regular census survey from 1871 onwards. Hence we can only make educated guesses on the basis of extrapolating the census figures backwards for a few decades and with whatever stray and meager data that is available for the earlier period. When the census figures for Muslims of the subcontinent are plotted, it is seen that the increase of the percent Muslim population for the British period i.e., 1881 to 1951 AD, shows an almost linear trend and can be extrapolated with some confidence at least until 1801. When this is done, the proportion of the Muslims in the subcontinent in 1800 AD appears to be about 13-15% and thus the Hindu : Muslim ratio is close to 6.

This fiure should be compared with the statements made by Akbar and Jehangir around 1600 AD. ‘Tarikh-i-Salim Shahi’, written by Jehangir states that “for the whole population of Hindustan, it is notorious that five parts in six are composed of Hindus, the adorers of images, and the whole concern of trade and manufactures, weaving, and other industrious and lucrative pursuits, are entirely under the management of these classes. Were it therefore, ever so much my desire to convert them to the true faith, it would be impossible, otherwise than through the incision of millions of people. Attached as they are to their religions, such as it is, they will be snared in the web of their own inventions : they cannot escape the retribution prepared for them; but the massacre of a whole people can never be any business of mine.” In the same book, Jehangir records a conversation he had with his father, Emperor Akbar. Akbar is recorded to have said, “Besides are not five parts in six of mankind either Hindus or aliens to our faith; and were I to be governed by motives of the kind suggested in your inquiry, what alternative can I have but to put them all to death! I have thought it therefore my wisest plan to let these men alone.”

Thus both Akbar and Jehangir estimate the proportion of Hindus of Muslims as being 5:1 or the proportion of Muslims at this time is 16.7%. This figure is not very different from the ratio of 6:1 and 13-15% estimated by us for 1800 AD. There could be two reasons for the slight variation. The emperors were making only a guesstimate in round figures to prove their point, and the figures could have included Mughal territories like Afghanistan which are totally Muslim and are not included in our discussions. Also South India which was outside of the Mughal empire and which had never come under uninterrupted Muslim rule, comprised predominantly of Hindus. Hence it is safe to assume that for the subcontinent as a whole, the Hindu:Muslim ratio was about 6 during these two centuries and that the Muslims constituted less than 15% of the population during this period.

There may be several reasons for this static figure. Except during the time of Aurangazeb, Muslim rulers did not enforce conversion of the Hindus as a matter of Islamic state policy because they were kept preoccupied by continuous political turmoil in different parts of their kingdom. Besides, rulers like Akbar had some regard for the tenets of Hinduism and therefore some tolerance for it. The spiritual awakening caused by the Bhakti movement in most parts of the country enabled the Hindus to face oppression stoically without changing their religion. The decrease in numbers could also be due to national resurgence and weakening of the Muslim rule in most parts of India from around the middle of the seventeenth century.

There is another important factor overriding the above considerations. The Islamic rulers governed their territories from urban centers and capitals. Their penetration into rural society was not too deep. Communities continued to govern themselves in their traditional ways. Hindu society, strongly organized within the caste-system, though greatly weakened in its political and cultural expressions, continued to function. It was only during the British period that this system was systematically and ruthlessly uprooted causing an unprecedented dislocation of the people and also causing object poverty. This was probably one of the reasons which may explain the spurt in the relative proportion of the Muslims, and later of the Christians, that began to take place after the coming of the British.

Hence in the nine centuries between 700 and 1600 AD, the Islamic population in the subcontinent grew from nil to about 15%. By about 1100 AD, the present territories of Pakistan may have become a Muslim majority region, but further penetration into the rest of India would have been minimal. In 1199 AD, Bengal was invaded by the Turkish adventurer Mohammed Bakhtiar Khilji, and the region remained under Muslim control until the British took over Bengal. Consequently a greater part of Bengal became Muslim Majority and was constituted as East Pakistan/Bangladesh from 1947 onwards.

Assam, however, could not be subdued by the invaders. The rest of India constituting today’s Indian Union may have had a Muslim population of less than 10% during most of this period except for a few pockets. This shows how successfully people of the Hindu faiths have resisted the onslaught of Islam even after several centuries of Islamic rule, unlike the regions around Arabia.

The centuries old Indian resistance to the rise of Islam seems to wilt after the coming of the British to India. Hence we shall now study the census and other data from 1881 onwards and see how the demographic religious character of the subcontinent has changed substantially.


The Centre For Policy Studies, Chennai, has complied from census records, data on religion for the subcontinent for the period 1881 to 1991. A summary of their findings is given in Appendix C as Table C-T1. It may be pointed out that although the figures for the subcontinent are available from 1881, the figures for the individual countries until 1951 are available only from the 1901 census onwards. To be precise, after Independence, the Government of India did not undertake the exercise to segregate the data on religion for post-independent, divided India from the consolidated data, while the Governments of Pakistan and later, Bangladesh did so; and therefore census data on religion for divided India is available only from Pakistan and Bangladesh Census records from 1901 to 1941 and not from Indian Census Records which continue to have only the consolidated data for undivided India. Hence the Indian Union figures have been calculated indirectly by subtracting the figures provided by Pakistan and Bangladesh from the subcontinent totals. This data has been summarized in Table 6.1 and important changes highlighted.

The Table contains the population fo the subcontinent and the three countries for five landmark region for each year and a ‘Growth Ratio’ to show by how many times the population in each category has increased during these three specific periods. For the subcontinent, the periods between 1881-1951 and 1851-1991 have been considered since the first represents the pre0Independence and the second, the post-Independence phase. For each country, however, the periods between 1901-41 and 1951-91 have been considered as significant periods since partition has made a qualitative difference in their populations and also to evaluate the pre- and post-Independence changes. The period between 1951-91 is common to all.


When we look at the subcontinent as a whole, during the pre-partition period from 1881 to 1951, The Muslims have grown about 35% faster than the Hindus (2.22/1.65 = 1.35). The Christians have in creased more spectacularly by five times with the obvious connivance of the British. Percentage of Hindu has decreased from 79.0% in 1881 to 73.0% in 1951. There is a corresponding steep increase of 4.9% in the Muslim population from 20.0% to 24.9%. The Hindu/Muslim ratio, which was perhaps close to six in 1800 as seen earlier, had already fallen to 4.0 in 1881 and the decrease has continued to 2.9 in 1951.

Table 6.1 : Growth Ratios of Important Religions

(Population in millions)

WHOLE SUBCONTINENT (India Pakistan and Bangladesh of today)


1881 1901 1941 1951 1991 1881-1951 1951-91 1881-91

TOTAL 250.16 283.87 389.00 445.00 1080.16 1.78 2.42 4.32

HINDUS 197.52 218.86 286.58 325.77 733.82 1.65 2.25 3.72

78.96% 77.10%73.67%73.04% 67.94%

Muslims 49.95 62.12 94.45 111.11 323.44 2.22 2.91 6.47

19.97% 21.88% 24.28%24.91% 29.94%

Christians 1.78 2.78 7.43 8.97 21.92 5.05 2.44 12.33

0.71% 0.98% 1.91% 2.01% 2.03%



TOTAL 238.36 318.72 361.38 846.30 1.34 2.34 3.55

HINDUS 206.41 268.57 315.17 719.59 1.30 2.28 3.49

86.59% 84.27% 87.21% 85.03%

Muslims 29.10 42.65 37.69 106.55 1.47 2.83 3.66

12.21% 13.38% 10.43% 12.59%

Christians 2.74 6.95 8.43 19.65 2.53 2.33 7.16

1.15% 2.18% 2.33% 2.32%


Muslims 7.1 6.3 8.4 6.8


TOTAL 16.58 28.28 40.45 122.40 1.71 3.03 7.38

Muslims 13.90 22.29 39.48 118.48 1.60 3.00 8.52

83.88% 78.82% 97.60% 96.60%

HINDUS 2.64 5.57 0.53 1.86 2.11 0.70

15.93% 16.69% 1.31% 1.5%

Muslims (est)

HINDUS 5.3 4.0 74.4


TOTAL 28.93 42.00 44.17 111.46 1.45 2.52 3.85

Muslims 19.11 29.51 33.94 98.42 1.54 2.90 5.15

66.07% 70.26% 76.85% 88.30%

HINDUS 9.82 12.44 10.07 12.37 1.27 1.23 1.26

33.93% 29.61% 22.79% 11.10%


HINDUS 1.9 2.4 3.4 8.0

The British had also noticed the faster growth of the Muslim population early enough and the 1911 Census Report gives the increase in Hindu and Mslim population during 1881 to 1911 in various provinces. The data in this Table supports a number of observations made in this chapter.

Table 6.2 : Percent increase between 1881 and 1911

Province Increase per cent since 1881

Hindu Mussalaman

Assam 18.7 43.2

Bengal 15.9 31.8

Bihar and Orissa 13.3 11.2

CP and Berar 22.0 24.4

Madras 30.6 43.0

Punjab and NWFP -5.0 22.5

United Provinces 5.6 12.0

It should be noted that apart from a faster increase in Muslim population, the Muslims were concentrated in certain regions. Kingsley Davis1, a pioneer in the demographic studies of the subcontinent, has the following to say on the ‘Demographic basis of Pakistan.’ “The only fact which made partition possible was the concentration of Muslims in certain parts of India…there was a high degree of concentration. Out of a total of 435 Districts, or other comparable divisions in India in 1941, there were 76 whose population was more than half Muslim. These representing only 17 per cent of all districts of India, contained 60 percent of the entire Muslim population. Among the 76 Muslim-majority districts there were 50 whose population was more than three-fourths Muslim…It so happened that majority district existed apart from these two clusters, nor did either cluster completely contain a Hindu-majority district. Conseqiently, the two clusters, embracing some 56 million Muslims in 1941, formed the geographic and demographic reality that made the idea of Pakistan feasible.”

On the trauma of mass migrations accompanying the partition Davis notes: “…there arose spontaneously one of the largest and quickest mass migrations in human history. No one knows and not one will ever know the exact figures, but it appears that about 6 million Muslims came into Pakistan and about 5 to 6 million non-Muslims left it. Something like one million of the total died in the process…” Some other observers, Davis notes, give a higher figure of migrants coming into India 6 millions from West Pakistan and 1.5 millions from East Pakistan. The deficit in the number of Hindus in Pakistan and Bangladesh seen in 1951 in Table. 5.1, above indicates that at least nine million Hindus have migrated or died in the holocaust after taking into account their natural forming again in the Indian Union, leading to a possibility of further partitions on religious basis. It will not be out of place to mention here that once the Muslim population reaches a critical mass in any region, they will drive away others by terror as has been seen in the past and is happening now in Jammu and Ladakh.

After partition, the change in the relative proportion has been even more rapid. The Hindus have grown at the rate of 2.25 times in the post-Independence period between 1951-91 whereas Muslims have increased by 2.91 times, that is, again about 30% higher. During these forty years the percentage of Hindus has come down by 5.1 against a Muslim increase of 5.0 compared to 3.4 and 2.4 respectively in an equivalent forty year period between 1901 to 1941. The Hindu:Muslim ratio has come down from 2.9 in 1951 to 2.3 in 1991, a very significant decrease. In absolute terms, the number of Hindus has increased from 326 million in 1951 to 734 million in 1991, the corresponding figures for the Muslims being 111 and 323 millions respectively.


Coming to constituent units, we find that in today’s Pakistan while the percentage of Hindus was increasing marginally in the pre-partition period, they were subject to a genocide in the partition riots with their percentage coming down drastically from 19.7 in 1941 to 1.3 in 1951. The 1951 Census Report of Pakistan itself gives the following information on their numbers in various states.

Table 6.3 : Population of Hindus in Pakistan’s Provinces

(Population in thousands)

1941 1951

Province Total Hindus Total Hindus

Pakistan 28282 5568 33704 530

Baluchistan Districts 502 57.2 602 4

Baluchistan States 356 10 552 9

Karachi Corp 365 195 1007 17

NWFP Districts 3038 249 3223 6

Punjab 15717 3943 18828 33

Bhawalpur 1341 242 1823 15

Sind 4099 1100 4606 457

The Mulsim:Hindu ratio in Pakistan has changed dramatically from 4 to 74, indicating the extent of the genocide. Perhaps nowhere in the world has such a change gone unpublicised and unchllenged in recent times. Most of the Hindus in Pakistan acording to the 1981 Pakistan census lived in Sind, (80% of them in its rural areas.) The growth ratios for Pakistan are also highest in the region, with an enormous 7.4 times increase in their population from 1901 to 1991.

An explanation is needed for the quantum jump of Pakistan’s population from 28.28m in 1941 to 40.45 m in 1951 as seen in Table 6.1 This should note be taken as Muslim migration from India as a result of partition. The enumerated population for Pakistan in only 32.73m for 1951. But as results of surveys carried out by international agencies after the 1961 census show, under-remuneration to the extent of 7-12% was found. Hence the population figure was worked backwards to 40.45m in 1951. The pre-Independence figures have not been similarly revised. Similar revisions in post-Independence population of Bangladesh have also been done. While Bangladesh’s census authorities have officially revised their enumerated figures, we have not comes across official revisions by Pakistan’s census authorities.

The Hindu population has not been eliminated so ruthlessly in today’s Bangladesh as was done in Pakistan, at one stroke, but it is nevertheless decreasing fast. From 33.9% in 1901 it had already come down to 29.6% in 1941, and the partition resulted in a further fall, to 22.8%. This significant decrease due to partition can be see again from the 1951 Pakistan census figures:

Table 6.4 : Population of Hindus in Bangladesh’s Provinces

(Population in thousands)

1941 1951

Province Total Hindus Total Hindus

Bangladesh 41997 12437 41932 9558

Chittagong 11310 3226 11722 2801

Dhakka & Barisal 16746 4019 16004 3318

Khulna 4527 1696 4598 1528

Rajshahi 9414 2792 9338 1912

The persecution of Hindus still continues and the percentage has fallen down to 11.1% in 1991. This decrease is well illustrated in the Table below.

Table 6.5 : Changing Percentage of Hindus in Bangladesh Divisions

(Population in thousands)

1951 1961 1974 1981 1991

Bangladesh 22.80 19.19 14.14 12.75 11.10

Barisal 20.12 17.67 15.35 13.56 11.66

Chittagong 23.89 20.18 14.43 13.96 12.66

Dhaka 20.47 16.55 11.83 9.76 8.19

Khulna 33.22 28.73 20.80 19.43 16.02

Rajshahi 20.47 17.30 12.95 11.56 10.57

It will also be seen that in Bangladesh during the period 1901 to 1991 the Muslims have grown by 5.2 times and Hindus only by 1.3 times, thus altering the Muslim:Hindu ratio from 1.9 in 1901 to 8.0 in 1991. Projections of census figures indicate that within a few decades Hindus will be an insignificant minority in Bangladesh.

Two points seem worth noting respect to Bangladesh. Firstly, the growth ratios of the country in the post-partition period would have been much higher if the estimated thirty million and more Bangladeshi Muslims had not come to India. And even though the percentage of Muslims in India and Hindus in Bangladesh are similar in 1991, the Hindus are an oppressed people in Bangladesh, unlike the Muslims in India. Even in the Hindu majority Indian Union, Hindus (including Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs) have decreased from 87.2% to 85.0% and the Muslims have correspondingly increased form 10.4% to 12.6% from 1951 to 1991. While the percentage of mere Hindus- not including Buddhists and Sikhs, has come down from 85 % in 1951 to 82.6 % in 1991, to just 80.5 % in 2001 and in 2011 it is below 80 % in the 70s, around 78-79%. If a proper census had been taken of illegal Bangladeshi Muslim immigrants (estimated by some at 30 millions now), the increase would perhaps be even higher. The Muslim leaders are already claiming that they have been under enumerated by 20% and some of them even state the their present strength in 200 million! Unfortunately they have not been asked to clarify the source of their estimates. Even on the basis of the census figures, the Hindus : Muslim ratio has decreased from 8.4 to 6.8. A significant increase of Muslim population has taken place in certain parts of the country many of which are adjacent to our borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh as will be seen from Map 6.1.

A very interesting feature of the population change from 1951 to 1991 in Table 6.1 is that the Muslim population has grown to the same extent, i.e. about three times in the subcontinent as well as its constituent units. Hence it appears that their fertility over this period is the same, irrespective of their location. We shall look into this aspect in detail below.


A number of international agencies have attempted to forecast the population trends of various countries. Since population growth is a function of several variables like fertility, longevity, mortality, age distribution and infant deaths, the forecast will depend on the values assigned to these factors. These factors themselves vary with time and their prediction is a complex task. As a result, these estimates vary considerably. We reproduce below the estimates made by the United Nations in 1996 and shall use tem for our projections.

Table 6.6 : Growth Ratios as per UN estimates

POULATION (in million) Growth Ratios

1990 2020 2050

1950 1990 2000 2020 2050 1950 1950 1950

India 357.6 850.8 1007 1272 1533 2.38 3.56 4.29

Pakistan 39.5 119.1 156 248 357.4 3.02 6.28 9.05

Bangladesh 41.8 109.8 128 171 218.2 2.63 4.09 5.22

Subcontinent 438 1080 1291 1691 2108 2.47 3.86 4.81

These estimates indicate that in the hundred years between 1950-2050, the population of the Indian Union shall multiply by 4.29 times, that of Bangladesh by 5.22 and of Pakistan by 9.05 (for Pakistan the increase will be nearly 22 times from 1900 to 2050). This differential growth in the three regions shall occur on top of similar differences persisting over at least the previous hundred years. Between 1901-1991, the population of the areas that constitute the Indian Union multiplied by 3.55, that of Bangladesh by 3.85 and of Pakistan by 7.38 (Table 6.1). The difference in the rate of growth of the areas constituting present day Pakistan has been so large, that at the time of partition, the areas that constituted present day Bangladesh were more populous than Pakistan; by 1990 the population of Pakistan has overtaken that of Bangladesh. But growth in Bangladesh is to some extent masked by large-scale immigration of Bangladeshi people into India. It is estimated that a total of 30 million Bangladeshis might have crossed over India since Independence.

The international estimates do not give data on religion. However, since Pakistan and Bangladesh have now become almost entirely Muslim, and the percentage of Muslims in the population of the Indian Union has been rising decade after decade, the sharp differences in the future growth trends of Pakistan and Indian are likely to significantly change the proportion of Hindus to Muslims on the subcontinent.

Another way to look at the future trends of population is to extrapolate the population figures of the last hundred years, for which accurate census data is available. Such extrapolation rests on the assumption that the factors that have led to differential growth of differnet people on the subcontinent, remain unchanged. We have graphically carried out such extrapolation, using the census data from 1881-1991 complied in Table C0T1 and subjecting it to standard statistical techniques. The trend graph in Figure 6.1, displays an excellent fir wth the census figures; and extrapolation of the graph beyond the census years, shows that the proportion of Muslims in the subcontinent is likely to reach the 50%, even earlier.

The future fertility factor should also be taken into account. The UN has revised its 1996 population estimates of the subcontinent downwards as compared to the 1994 estimates, due to the decreasing fertility rate as a result of family planning measures. It will be seen below that the fertility amongst the Muslims has been considerably higher than that of the Hindus and the difference in increasing. This will lead to an even faster relative growth of their population which will prepone the above event. There is no reason to believe that this situation will be reversed particularly in view of the frequent proclamations of the Muslim religious and political leaders that they shall wellcome a higher population growth of the Muslims so that they can overtake the Hindu population.

An indirect confirmation of a faster relative growth comes from a statement by Rafiq Zakaria2- ‘the enrollment of Muslim children at the primary school level in the relevant period was 12.39% as against the child population of 16.81%’. So Rafiq Zakaria has in effect claimed that in 1984, Muslim children constituted 16.81% of the total. This implies that around 2010 AD when this group reaches the median position, the native Muslim population of India, not counting the post 1984 Muslim immigrants, will be about 17%. This is much higher than the figure of about 15% for the 2011 census obtained by projecting the Muslim population of India on the basis of past census figures from 1951 to 1991.

We should also take into account the demographic pressures of our Muslim neighbors as a result of their increased population. An assessment of UN population and FAO agriculture statistic together indicates that the number of persons supported by one hectare of cultivable land will be approximately 9, 17 and 24 in 2050 AD for India, Pakistan and Bangladesh respectively. This implies that the population pressure in Pakistan and Bangladesh will be much higher than in the case of India. Already intellectuals in Bangladesh are talking about lebensraum for their citizens and supporting the unchecked illegal immigration into India (see Note in Appendix C). This pressure will greatly intensify in future and we can also expect similar pressures on our western borders. Our vulnerability will greatly increase as a result. It is time for the Indian government as well as the enlightened public to realize the gravity of the situation and take appropriate measures on a war footing instead of being lured by a temporarily favorable factor of election votes.


Fertility in demography refers to the number of children born to a woman. Greater the fertility the greater will be the overall population growth. The overall growth rate of the population is basically determined by the difference of birth rate and death rate and death rate or fertility and mortality. A reduction in fertility leads to slowing down of the population growth rate and hence is an objective very much sought after through contraception and other means of birth control. But as a country develops economically, due to better medical facilities, initially the death rates comes down. Hence the rate of growth of the population accelerates as has happened in the subcontinent. This continues until the decrease in birth rate sufficiently exceeds the decrease in death rate. Only with great effort can the birth rate be sufficiently reduced to restore the balance. In this reduction the social, political and religious factors play an important role.

There are several ways of quantifying fertility statistically, although none of them are above any controversy. The two widely used terms are TFR or Total Fertility Rate which is the weighted average of all births to women between the ages 15-49 (i.e. the period in which all their children are usually born) during the three years preceding the survey and CEB or Children Ever Born to women who are past their reproductive age. Since women rarely have children after they cross the age of fifty, the number of children born to them until then gives a good indication of their fertility. TMFR (Total Marital Fertility Rate) is another term used in earlier the entire range of child bearing women at the time of survey whereas the CEB covers only older women. In a society with a falling fertility, the latter is alsways higher than the former. In fact the future CEB values will tend to equal the current TFR values after a decade or two. Hence the difference between the two at a given point of time indicates how successful family planning measures have become. We shall be using these terms frequently in the discussions below.

During the British period itself the Census Commissioners, as indicated above, had noted the differential growth of Hindus and Muslims but only speculated on the causes behind them. Kingsley Davis, after analyzing all available census data, has observed, “The sources of this gain [in Muslim population] apparently lies not in conversion but in the greater fertility of the Muslims, which in turn is attributable primarily to their greater tolerance of widow remarriage. Muslim women marry almost us universally as Hindu women, and they remarry considerably more frequently…The result is that a higher proportion of women in the reproductive ages are married, and this accounts for a portion of the among Muslims are more fertile than they are among the Hindus. This is a condition that has existed at every census [Appendix C, Table C-T2a]….Not only is there a greater proportion of the Muslim women married, but those who are married also have a higher fertility. The consistency of the Muslim advantage in past years suggests that it is deep rooted and likely to continue for some time.”

The noted scholars, Visaria and Visaria have also observed that in the pre-Independence decades the average death rate for Muslims was generally lower than others and their fertility was 10-15 percent higher than Hindus for the period between 1901-31. Mohanty noted that the Muslim growth was higher because they occupied more fertile lands as in Eastern Bengal and the canal irrigated lands in Western Punjab and Sindh. This observation lends credence to the charge that the British intentionally neglected the northern core Hindu regions like UP and Bihar as can be seen from their spatial distribution or share of the subcontinent’s population in table below.

Table 6.7 : Spatial Distribution of Population in some Regions of the Subcontinent

(Population in thousands)

1901 1941 1951 1981 1991

Pakistan 293.9 389.0 446.0 861.4 1,080.2

5.84% 7.27% 9.07% 10.24% 11.33%

Punjab 10,314 17,168 20.637 47,292

3.63% 4.41% 4.63% 5.49%

Sind 3,410 4,841 6,048 19.029

1.20% 1.24% 1.36% 2.21%

Bangladesh 28.9 42.0 44.2 89.9 111.5

10.19% 10.80% 9.90% 10.44% 10.32%

India 238.4 318.7 361.4 683.3 846.3

83.97% 81.93% 81.03% 79.32% 78.35%

Uttar Pradesh 48,628 56,535 63,210 110,862 139,112

17.13% 14.53% 14.17% 12.87% 12.88%

Bihar 27,312 35,171 38.782 69,915 86,374

9.62% 9.04% 8.70% 8.12% 8.00%

Kerala 6,396 11,032 13,549 25,454 29,099

2.25% 2.84% 3.04 2.95% 2.69%


Country population in million; state population in thousands

For each region the first row gives the population and the second gives percentage in terms of the subcontinent’s population

The population of Bihar has thus declined from 9.62 percent of the total population of the subcontinent in 1900 to 8.00 percent in 1991; and that of Uttar Pradesh has come down from 17.13 to 12.88 percent during the same period. If instead of looking at the population of these provinces as a proportion of the population of the subcontinent, we look at the proportion these populations forms of population of the Indian Union, we still see a significant decline. Thus between 1901 and 1991, the share of UP in the population of the Indian Union has come down from 20.4% to 16.4% and of Bihar from 11.5% to 10.2%. On the other hand, a coastal state like Kerala that constituted 2.6% of the Union’s population improved its share to 3.9 in 1971 (i.e. by 50%), although it has now fallen to 3.4 in 1991 (total State population figures are give in App.C, Table C-T3). Those ridiculing the absence of family planning in the country’s ‘cow belt’ and ‘excessive’ population increase there in the last two or three decades, should take note of these facts and the implications it contains for Hindu demography.

For the post-Independence period, we give the fertility and other relevant data in Appendix C, Tables C-T2 for the three countries as well as for several Indian states. It should be understood that the quality of data for Pakistan and Bangladesh is poor, leading to underestimation of fertility values and hence UN estimates given below are more reliable. The acronym NFHS in the Appendix as well as below stands for ‘National Family and Health Survey 92-93’ which is conducted periodically by the International Institute of Population Studies, Mumbai.

Table 6.8 : UN Estimates of TFR (1996 Revision)

Period India Pakistan Bangladesh

1950.55 5.97 6.50 6.66

1960-65 5.81 7.00 6.68

1970-75 5.43 7.00 7.02

1980-85 4.47 6.50 6.15

1990-95 3.39 5.51 3.40

The following facts will be clear from these tables and other data on fertility.

1. Muslim fertility has always been higher than Hindu fertility and further, the difference have widened through the eighties due to increased emphasis on family planning. In the sixties, the ratio of Muslim TFR to Hindu TFR in percent (%M/H) was around 115. In the seventies, although the ratio of Muslim CEB to Hindu CEB was close to this figure, yet the Muslim-Hindu TFR ratio as given by the 1981 census has already increased to 123 (and further to 134 in NFHS survey) on an all India basis. The NFHS survey shows that in the eighties, the Muslim-Hindu ratios of both the TFR and CEB have increased substantially.

2. The TFR figures for Indian Muslims for 1990-95 of 4.4 closely corresponds to thr average 4.5 TFR for Pakistan and Bangladesh which is much higher than the average TFR for the Indian Union at 3.3 The corresponding contraceptive usage figures are 28% and 29%. Hence it appears that the population growth of Indian Muslims will tend to be the average of Pakistan and Bangladesh growth figures. In other words, a Mulim family will have on average, one more child than a Hindu, family, even when family planning generally brings down the TFR. (see 3 below)

3. When the rest of India reaches the Kerala figures as aimed by our policy planners, a Hindu woman will have less than two children (1.66 of Kerala) and a Muslim woman, three (2.97 for Kerala). This implies that the Muslim population in India will tend to grow twice as fast as the Hindu population (Table 6.9). Note that this has already happened in Kerala in the 1981-91 decade.

4. Particularly worrying is the increase in TFR over CEB in the NFHS survey as compared to the 81 census and the 84 SRS survey. This clearly implies that the Muslim population growth will be accelerated over the next few decades. Hence the percentage of Mulims in the Indian population is likely to be much higher than the projection made on the basis of historical behaviour. It will not be surprising if the Muslims constitute over 25% of the Indian Union’s population in 2050. The problem will be compounded by unrestricted immigration of Muslims from Bangladesh as well as perhaps from Pakistan.

5. The states also present in interesting picture (Table C-T2f). It will be seen that there is a difference in the behaviors of the population from state to state. The gap has been narrowed to some extent in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For Tamil Nadu, the NFHS TFR is very similar for both communities as compared to the 1981 census. The TFR for both communities has also come down appreciably. On the other hand, in the other southern states of Kerala and Karnataka, the TFR has come down for both Hindus and Muslims between 1981 and 1991, but the reduction for the Hindus is far more and hence the% M/H ratio has widened substantially. In Kerala the TFR for Muslims is 79% more than Hindus (%M/H=179), a figure exceeded only by West Bengal (82%). Hence the authorities will have to ensure that the Tamil Nadu experience is followed strictly, but this does not seem to be happening.

6. Age distribution of the population plays an important role in the political and social spheres. Greater emphasis on family planning leads to a large percentage of the population being in the old-age bracket. By 2050, the Muslim population in the subcontinent shall be much younger than the Hindu population, leading to even faster relative growth of the Muslim population.

The NFHS Repott (92-93) itself has made the following observations on Muslim fertility.

Muslims have a considerably higher fertility than any other religious group. On average, Muslim women have 1.1 children more than Hindu women. However, even among Muslims, there has been a considerable decline in fertility over time. The lowest fertility levels (under three children per woman) are exhibited by Christians, Sikh, and women from other religious (primarily Buddhists and Jains). …. Within each education groups, the Muslim TFR is 23-28% higher than the Hindu TFR. The differential is even larger (43%) for the relatively small number of women in the highest education group. [emphasis ours.]. The differential between Hindu and Muslim fertility overall is 34%…. but religion is still strongly related to fertility even within education groups. (Pages 97-98)

The prevalence of female sterilization does not differ much among most religious groups, except for the fact that it is very low among Muslims … the proportion of women and men who have been sterilized is twice as high for Hindus as for Muslims. (Page 138)

The contraceptive prevalence rate is lowest amongst Muslims and highest amongst Sikhs for each educational category of women…The analysis suggests that educational differentials among different religious groups partly explains the religious differences in contraceptive use; however, the religious differentials persist even after controlling for education. [emphasis ours Page 149)


Kerala today is a multi-religous state with a large presence of all major religions. The level of literacy is almost cent percent in all communities, particularly the younger generation. Family planning messages communicated by various means has reached every strata and section of the society. Hence it will be instructive to study how the family planning measures have affected various communities and the resultant demographic trends. This is especially important since the Indian population as a whole is expected to behave in an identical manner in the years to come.

It will be instructive to compare the various indices for the country and the state shown in the Table below

Table 6.9 : Comparison of India and Kerala Fertility

India Kerala


%Decadal Growth

1951-61 20.95 24.55 117 23.21 27.49 118

1961-71 23.87 30.85 129 23.34 37.48 161

1971-81 24.13 30.83 128 16.69 29.95 179

1981-91 22.77 32.60 143 12.64 25.47 202


1971 Census

TMFR (Rural) 5.4 6.2 115 5.9 6.4 108

1981 Census

TFR (cor) 4.8 5.9 123 3.0 5.1 170

NFHS 92-93

TFR 3.30 4.41 134 1.66 2.97 179

CEB 4.78 5.83 122 3.19 5.33 167

% TCU 41.6 27.7 67 72.5 37.8 52

% Total Sterilisation 32.7 16.0 49 57.2 27.6 48

The Table shows that a good correlation exists between TFR and acceptance of contraception as well as between TFR and population growth. Of course TFR is only one factor responsible for growth, the others being general mortality and age distribution. Unfortunately, there has been no religious cross-tabulation of the pertinent data for these categories, and hence we have to depend on TFR alone. TFR values which indicate current fertility, although constantly changing, can be broadly interpreted in terms of population growth for the previous decade. CEB and TMFR values broadly represent historical fertility.

For 1971, only TMFR values for rural and urban regions are available and may indicate historical fertility rates. The Muslims value is 10-20% more than Hindu value (%M/H) for both India and Kerala and correlates well with the 1951-61 relative population growth rate (% M/H) for both India and Kerala.

With increasing family planning efforts from the sixties, the picture has changed significantly in subsequent decades. For the 1961-71 and 1971-81 decades for the country, % M/H has gone up slightly but is similar (has compulsory sterilizations without discrimination in certain states during Emergency anything to do in this regard?), reflecting higher relative growth rates for Muslims. In Kerala however, perhaps due to increased family planning amongst Hindus, the %M/H ratio has increased significantly in this period.

For the 1981-91 decade, the NFHS-1992 %M/H ratio for TFR values has increased to 134 for India and 179 for Kerala. When we review the extent of family planning in these communities we find that %M/H ratio for Total Contraception Usage (TCU) is far lower in Kerala than India signifying that the gap between the two religions has widened in spite of greater contraceptive usage amongst both. The ratio for% Total sterilization (i.e. the percentage of population which has undergone sterilization, both male and female, ensuring complete elimination of future births to the couple) is even more unfavorable to the Hindus both in India as well as Kerala (since sterilization under Indian conditions gives a very good indication of the effectiveness of family planning measures.) It will also be noted that% M/H values for 1992 in every respect, are higher than the 1971 and 1981 values for both India as well as Kerala. In fact these values have progressively increased particularly for Kerala.

No wonder that although there is a reduction in the decadal increase of population in absolute terms for Kerala from 1961 onwards, the decadal Muslim increase is much greater than Hindu increase, as reflected in the%M/H ratios for decadal population increases (202 for 1981-91 decade.) Since literacy for the state is quite high at 90%, it can be safely assumed that it is similar for all major communities, particularly for the younger generation. With the Gulf incomes, the relative prosperity of the Muslim community should be as good as others. Hence we cannot take recourse to the standard explanation for this large difference. Appendix C, Table C-T4 and Table 6.10 will indicate that the growth rate of Muslims in Kerala, is the highest among Indian states. This may be contrasted with the other minority community in Kerala, which has enthusiastically adopted family planning measures.

Even the NFHS Report for Kerala has mildly commented as follows :

P.xxiii: Fertility of Muslims has declined to three children per woman, but still remains higher than the fertility of those of other religions

P.xxiv : Knowledge of family planning is universal in Kerala

Pxxv: Approval of family planning is relatively low among Muslims

P.9 : Under the auspices of the India Population Project (IPP) initiated in 1984, four backward (in terms of family planning achievements) Districts: namely Wayanad, Malappuram, Idukki and Palakkad were provided with enhanced infrastructure, service inputs and IEC network. During the project period (1984-90), there was a significant decline in the birth rates of Wayanad and Idukki Districts and a moderate decline in the other two Districts.

P. 57 : Differences by religion are the largest and have narrowed the least. Muslims have the highest current and cohort fertility of any group in the table. Current Muslim fertility, however, is higher than that of Hindus and Christians by more than one child, but cohort fertility of Muslims is higher than Hindus or Christians by two children.

P.65 : The average number of children ever born is higher for Muslims

P. 69 : The median age at first birth for Muslims is three years lower than for Hindus and nearly five years lower than for Christians

The P. 84: The prevalence rate (of contraception) is the lowest among the Muslims

P. 109 : Hindus and Christians are more likely to want to stop childbearing than Muslims

P. 117 : The ideal family size for Muslims is one child higher than that for Hindus and Christians

P. 187 : Muslim-headed households are more than twice as likely to have a current migrant (43%) as Christian (21%) and Hindu-headed households (14%)

It should be noted that as the fertility levels between two communities widen, another important factor, namely ‘Age Distribution’ comes into play. Unfortunately we do not have community wise data for this factor. But it is obvious that for a community having a high fertility, the percentage of child bearing couples as compared to its total population increases with time. Hence it is possible that a combination of high TFR and a larger number of child bearing couples (see Kingsley Davis’s comments given earlier) will progressively increase the relative growth even faster. For Kerala this is very clear when we study the decadal increases in the above Table.

Having studied the population picture at the subcontinent level and also looked into certain demographic factors responsible for it we shall now study the position in various regions of our country.


The growth of the Muslim (and Christian) population is not uniform and constant all over the country but is concentrated in certain regions. The Center For Policy Studes4 has studied from the census records, how their percentages have varied from 1901 onwards with respect to states and from 1931 for the districts (about 300 districts having more than 5% Muslims in 1991.)

Table 6.10 : Summary of Muslim High Growth States and Regions


State Region 1961-91 1981-91

India 1.90 0.83

Assam 3.13

North Assam 4.03

chachar 3.88

Bihar Purnea 4.80 2.22

Santhal Pargana 4.48

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Goa 3.36 1.15

Haryana Gurgaon/Faridabad 3.29 0.53

Karnataka Coastal 4.50 1.53

Kerala 5.42 2.08

North Kerala 6.82 2.81

Mahaashtra Mumbai/Thane 3.38 1.17

Rajasthan North East 2.56 1.04

Uttar Pradesh 2.70 1.40

North West 4.24 2.52

North East 4.76 1.59

West Bengal 3.61 2.10

Central 5.02 2.48

Greater Calcutta 5.53 2.16

Delhi 3.62 1.70

North Assam consists of the 1971 districts of Goalpara, Kamrup, Darrang and Nagaon

Coastal Karnataka consists of Uttar and Dakshin Kannada

North Kerala consists of 1971 districts of Kannur, Kozhikode and Malappuram

North East Rajasthan consists of the 1971 districts of Churu, Jhunjunu, Alwar, Jaipur, Sikar, Nagaur and Ajmer

North West Uttar Pradesh consists of 1971 districts of Bijnor, Muradabad, Muradabad, Sahranpur, Rampur Muzzafarnagar, Meeru, Bulandshahar, Aligarh, Budaun, Bareilly and Pilbhit

North East Uttar Pradesh consists of 1971 districts of Bahraich, Gonda, Basti, Barabanki and Deoria

Greater Calcutta consists of districts of Haora and Calcutta

Central Bengal consists of districts of Maldah, Murshidabad, Birbhum and Bardhaman

Appendix C, Table C-T3, gives the population of each state (as it existed in 1991) from 1901 onwards as well as percentage of Muslims and Christians. It will be noted that some data for pre Independence period is not available and available and some have been derived indirectly.

Certain states and districts were seen to have a higher growth of Muslim population than the Indian average. These have been listed in Appendix C, Table C-T4. The position is summarised in Table 6.10 in which we have listed regions in which the percent growth or increase of the Muslim population is either over 3% in the 1961-91 period or over 1% in the 1981-91 decade. Columns under ‘% Increase’ show the percentage by which the Muslim population has increased during the relevant period. Thus if they constituted 5% of the total population in 1951, and 8% in 1991, the 1951-91 increase will be 3% they constituted 5% of the total population in 1951, and 8% in 1991, the 1951-91 increase will be 3%

We have used the state and district data in Table C-T4 to draw the enclosed Map 6.1. In this map we have shown three types of High Muslim Growth Areas.

1. States where this growth for the period 1951-91 is larger than the all India Growth Rate for this period (marked with red boundaries)

2. Districts with a Muslim population larger than 5% and with the growth rate for the period 1951-91 (or 1961-91) larger than both the all India and the respective state growth rates for the same period (marked blue)

3. New Districts with a Muslim population larger than 5% and with the growth rate for the period 1981-91 (but not 1951-91 or 1961-91) larger than both the all India and the respective state growth rates for the same period (marked Yellow)

The Map as well as both Tables indicate that there are broadly three regions with accelerated growth.

1. A wide belt extending from Pakistan to Bangladesh and beyond and also bordering Nepal. It covers the states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and West Bengal

2. Non-contiguous regions in Central India comprising of Mumbai/Thane districts, Central and Northern Maharashtra, along with a few neighbouring districts in Andhra and Karnataka

3. Western coast southwards from Goa extending to coastal and central Karnataka and Kerala.

Additional data for these regions as well as explanatory notes are given in some detail in the Note, ‘Note on States with High Muslim Growth’ in Appendix C. The Note also covers influx from Bangladesh which is causing a serious problem in the Eastern states.

Having studied various aspects of this problem we should now think of urgent steps to be taken to redress the situation. Firstly it should be made clear to all concerned that this has been a Hindu subcontinent from times immemorial and Hindus have a right as well as a dharmic duty to ensure that it shall always remain so. Large parts of it are now independent nation-states practicing alien and aggressive religions. It is the responsibility of the Hindu leadership to create a strong Hindu bulwark in what is today the Indian Union so that further fragmentation on the basis of religion is avoided and the Hindu decline in India itself is reversed. Family planning measures should be made applicable to all communities equally. Apart from a massive shuddhi movement to bring back those who have strayed from the path of our dharma other steps will also have to be initiated.

Hindus will have to be organized and educated about the threats that they face so that they can understand and participate in all the necessary steps taken. The influx from Bangladesh and Pakistan has to be totally stopped and the illegal immigrants who have already entered have to be sent back. The Hindus in these countries will also have to be strengthened. It should be ensured that in no region particularly the border areas, the minority religions exceed a critical mass and necessary rehabilitation will have to be done for solving this problem. All assistance should be extended by patriots in eradicating the terrorist menace. Since time at our disposal is quite limited, a national emergency action plan needs to be worked out and effectively implemented so that the treat of Hindus becoming a minority in India or in any particular region is avoided in a decade or two.


1. The Population of India and Pakistan, Kingsley Davis, Princeton, 1951

2. The Widening Divide, R. Zakaria, P. 146; he has quoted a report of a High Powered Panel for Minorities, appointed by the Government of India in 1984 with Dr. Gopal Singh as the Chairman.

3. Center For Policy Studies, Chennai, Private communications

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Islam in India: History

It is a daunting task to compress the history of thirteen hundred years into a few pages and so we have highlighted only some important but less known events of this period. Simply put it appears that Muslim invaders simply walked into our country and held it tightly for over thousand years until the British in turn conquered it from them. This is contrary to facts which we have highlighted in this essay. The period has been covered objectively by Dr. S. D. Kulkami in “Encounter with Islam”1 of the BIITSHMA series.

Common Historical Misconceptions

It will be a surprise to most readers who have been fed on the establishment history books to know that it is the Hindus who resisted the onslaught of Arabs for over two centuries unlike the regions west and north of Arabia which succumbed immediately. It took over five hundred years for the Arabs and Turks to lay a foundation for their empire in India and another two centuries before a stable Empire could be formed after Akbar’s reign which also perished after a century. The chronology of important events is given in Appendix B.

It is also a mistake to assume that the Arabs ruled India2. Actually the Arabs did not rule India except Sindh for 150 years and a small kingdom in Madura for a few years, although many Arab families settled in the country. The rulers were mostly Turks and Afghans (several Turk families had settled in Afghanistan from where they came into India) and senior officers apart from them also included those from Iran.

It should be noted that the Turkish race originated in Central Asia which was mostly a part of the erstwhile Soviet Union. In fact the Turks were initially imported as slaves, both domestic and military, from beyond the eastern borders of Islam in the ninth century. They gradually rose to high ranks in the military and ultimately took over the Muslim world as empire builders. From 960 AD onwards whole Turkish tribes got converted and these converts moved to the Middle-East in waves and changed the whole demography of the region including the present day Turkey3. The Turks accepted Islam without any reservations, sank their national identity in it and became its greatest champions even pushing the Arabs to the background. Later on they were joined by another central Asian tribe, the mostly Buddhist Mongols.

Ambedkar states in his book on Pakistan4, “These invasions of India by Muslims were as much invasions of India as they were wars among the Muslims themselves. This fact has remained hidden because the invaders are all lumped together as Muslims without distinction. But as a matter of fact, they were Tartars, Afghans and Mongols. … They were not a loving family cemented by the feeling of Islamic brotherhood. They were deadly rivals of one another and their wars were often wars of mutual extermination. What is, however, important to bear in mind is that with all their internecine conflicts they were all united by one common objective and that was to destroy the Hindu Faith.” It should also be noted that these rulers considered the local converted Muslims as second class Muslims. Aurangzeb, for instance, has often remarked ‘We Turks, you Hindusthanis’ to both Indian Hindus and Muslims. Even in the ‘enlightened’ Moghul period, over seventy percent of the senior administrative and military posts were in the hands of Muslim foreigners. There are only a few instances of local Muslims establishing kingdoms like the Sultans of Gujerat and the Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar. Hence there is no substance to the claim by Indian Muslims that they ruled over India for over a thousand years. That even this claim is not true can be seen from the Table given below. It will also be noted that the local Muslims along with their Hindu brethren could not live in peace and tranquility in these tumultuous times in spite of receiving a more favourable treatment from their rulers.

The Hindu kingdoms put up a sustained and valorous resistance to the invaders. It should be remembered that all the accounts of the Muslim period have been written by Muslim and British historians and are both distorted and exaggerated in their favour. But ultimately Hindus in spite of their valour, could not prevent the Muslim invaders from running over this nation. Many reasons can be given for this. The greatest fault lies in our not studying the scriptures and psychology of the invaders which would have given us a clue to their behaviour. Our standards of dharmic, ethical warfare were not reciprocated by the invaders. When they lost, they were magnanimously pardoned and allowed to go back. But they used the reprieve only to regroup and attack treacherously again. We never understood that treachery was an intrinsic feature of their religion practiced by no less a person than their prophet. Unfortunately this lacunae still persists even today. We also always fought defensively that is only when we were attacked

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and then too it was each king for himself. Our intelligence was inadequate if not absent and the enemy could always spring an element of surprise leaving no time for the rulers to equip themselves adequately. The Hindus also lacked skills of military organisation, a forte of Muslims. Never did the Hindu rulers, even after convincing victories adopt an aggressive posture and take the trouble of uniting their forces and drive out the invaders once for all from the subcontinent and then fortifying the borders. Other shortcomings are excess of superstition, lack of adequate espionage and not keeping the military machine up-to-date.

It may not be farfetched to describe these Islamic invasions as asuric. Ambedkar states in his book on Pakistan, “Muhammad of Ghazni ‘demolished idol temples and established Islam. He captured…cities, killed the polluted wretches, destroying the idolaters, and gratifying Muslims’. ..Muhammad bin Qasim’s first act of religious zeal was forcibly to circumcise the Brahmins of the captured city of Debul…. Muhammad of Ghazni from the first adopted those plans that would strike terror into the heart of Hindus….Not infrequently the slaughter of the Hindus gave a great setback to the indigenous culture of the Hindus….Even in the reign of Shah Jahan, we read of the destruction of the temples that the Hindus had started to rebuild…it was left to Aurangzeb to make a final attempt to overthrow idolatry… Slavery was the fate of those Hindus who were captured in the holy war. But, when there was no war the systematic abasement of the Hindus played no unimportant part in the methods adopted by the Muslim invaders…all this was not the result of mere caprice or moral perversion. On the other hand, what was done was in accordance with the ruling ideas of the leaders of Islam in the broadest aspects.”

And to see just a brief cursory history (very brief and very cursory) of the atrocities on Hindus in medieval India, click here.

The British have, as is usual for them, distorted history by calling this period as the Muslim Period (instead of Turkish Period) and claiming that they captured power from them. By the same logic the European period should also have been called as the Christian Period! Again most of the important conquests of the British of the cities of Delhi, Agra, Lahore and Peshawar, and the bulk of the territory were from Marathas, Sikhs and other non-Muslim rulers. Only the regions in Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhra, Bengal, Bihar, Sindh and middle and eastern Uttar Pradesh were captured from the Muslim rulers.


Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam was born in 570 AD. From 622 AD when he went to Madina until his death in 632 AD i.e. in a short span of just ten years he consolidated Arabia into a single political and religious unit with his undoubted abilities as a proselytiser and General. The Caliphs who succeeded Muhammad, in spite of internal politicking and bickering, expanded the boundaries of the Muslim Empire within the next 10 – 12 years to cover the territories of the two great powers of the time, the Byzantine and the Sassanid empires. Between 637 and 651 AD Persia was conquered and the Islamic borders touched Afghanistan (Gandhara) which was then a part of Bharat. Egypt fell in 641 AD. By 718 AD Spain was conquered. Even Southern France was annexed for a few years. Within one hundred years of the Prophet’s death, the Arabs became the masters of a vast region extending from the Bay of Biscay to the Indus and the frontiers of China, and from the Aral sea to the Upper Nile.

As for India, Caliph Umar had sent a naval expedition in 636 AD itself to capture the port of Thane (now a suburb of Mumbai), but the attack was successfully repulsed. Immediately thereafter the ports of Broach in Gujarat and Debal in Sindh were unsuccessfully attacked. Umar wanted to avenge these defeats by attacking Makran (Baluchistan), but the Governer of Iran, Abu Musa, realising that it will be futile in view of the strength of the ruler of Sindh, Chachrai, advised him that ‘.. .he should no more think of Hind’. It should be noted that this happened at the time when the Arab armies were marching victoriously in the west. Umar wisely decided to concentrate on expanding his sway over Turkish speaking territories of outer Mongolia, Bukhara, Tashkand, Samarkand etc.

During Ali’s reign (656 – 661 AD), his army invaded Sindh again under the leadership of General Heras, which advanced upto Kikan where it was routed with severe losses incurred by them. During the Caliphate of Muwahiyah, six expeditions were lead by the Arabs to capture Sindh but without success. It was only in 680 AD after many attempts and a fierce campaign that Makran or Baluchistan was finally subjugated.

Thereafter, no attempt was made for the next thirty years to extend the rule to Sindh proper. In 708 AD, 4000 soldiers under the command of Budial attacked Debal but their army was routed. A larger well equipped force was sent under the leadership of Muhammad bin Kasim. With treachery they captured Debal and advanced to Fort Raor with the help of some Buddhists. Here Dahir, the king of Sindh proved to be an easy target on his elephant. In spite of stiff resistance from his wife and son, Muhammad captured Sindh including Multan after a year in 713 AD. At this stage Muhammad was recalled and there was again a revival of Hindu power and the Arabs were able to retain only a toehold of land along the coastal strip. In 718 AD, Junaid the then Governor of Sindh again defeated Dahir’s son and pressed forward into Gujerat and Kashmir, where their advances were checked by Pulakesin and Lalitaditya respectively and thus the Arabs were again confined only to Sindh.

Conversions to Islam through political pressure began with the conquest of Sind and Multan by Muhammad bin Qasim between 711 and 713. There was a stiff resistance from Hindus unlike in the West. The Hindus reverted to their old faith as soon as the Arabs turned their back! Hence Muhammad bin Kasim, according to the ruling Ulema of Damascus, accorded Hindus and Buddhists the status of dhimmls (protected subjects) following the precedent set with regard to Zoroastrians. The dhimmis’ willingness to pay Jizyn (poll tax) in addition lo other taxes, collectively known as khiraj, meant that they were permitted to repair their places of worship. They were allowed to retain the high offices they had held previously and to worship the gods in their temples. Thus the former Hindu and Buddhist governing classes became the counterpart of dihqan (hereditary village leader) class of Iran and Transoxonia. They acted as intermediaries between the Cultivators and the conquerors who belonged to the military class and had little administrative experience. Muslims became friendly with their Hindu neighboring states and entered into alliances with them. Muslim travelers, merchants and saints freely roamed all over India and later proved to be spies for the Muslim rulers. The liberal Muslim policy lulled the Hindus into complacence and weakened their spirit of resistance.

Coming to Afghanistan, there were two kingdoms, Kabul (then known as Kapisha) and Zabul, ruling the region. The kingdom of Zabul lay south of present day Kabul and was ruled by the Hindu dynasty called Shahs or Shahias. Afghanistan, as late as the seventh century, formed part of India both politically and culturally and constituted the borders of India. Immediately after the fall of Persia, the Muslims turned their attention to it. After initial attacks which were repulsed, the province of Seistan was annexed in 653 AD. They lost it for a while in 683 AD. Attempts to annex the rest of the kingdom were made repeatedly but Ranbal, the ruler repulsed them with bravery. Ultimately, by deceit both kingdoms were captured by the Turk Yakub in 870 AD thus ending the glorious resistance of this border state against mighty hordes for over two hundred years. Even then the kingdom was not fully subjugated and the Shahis continued to rule Kabul until the ruler of Ghazni, Subuktigin, finally conquered Kabul in 987AD.

Penetrating The Indian Heartland

Subuktigin’s son, the famous Muhammad, ascended the throne in 998 AD. He was a military genius of a high order. He first annexed large territories of Persia and then turned his attention towards India, the largest bastion of idolaters. The earlier attacks were mainly for loot and plunder and the powerful Hindu rulers like the Imperial Guptas of Magadh and Shahis of Afghanistan could contain these. But now Muhammad wanted to over run this ancient civilisation with the intention of wiping out Hindus and Hinduism.

Muhammad First attacked Jaipal of Peshawar. The latter was narrowly defeated and stung by it, cremated himself. His son Anandpal who succeeded him was also defeated and had to escape to Kashmir. But instead of learning his lesson he offered help to Muhammad when the latter was attacked by another Turkish leader, expecting that he will win Muhammad’s lifelong friendship! This was obviously not reciprocated and Muhammad attacked him again in 1008 AD after quelling the rebellion. Anandpal sought the assistance of neighbouring Hindu rulers. The rival armies camped facing each other for forty days and then a bitter battle ensued. Unfortunately, just as the Hindu forces were about to win, the elephant carrying the king was scared with naphtha balls, and when the army saw it fleeing, lost its courage and fled. But Muhammad too had to return back to Ghazni at that time. After Anandpal’s death, Muhammad attacked again in 1013 AD and gradually eliminated his successors until 1026AD. Thus the Shahi kingdom which guarded the borders of India for 1500 years since 500 BC came to an end.

Muhammad now turned his attention to other territories. He attacked the Chandellas in 1018 AD. When he saw the powerful enemy army facing him, he returned to Ghazni. The Chandella army at this stage could have decisively finished him, but as usual it was another instance of misplaced generosity. He again returned in 1022 AD but could not penetrate the fort of Kalinjar. Hence he made peace by giving costly gifts to the ruler. Having failed in these attempts he turned his attention to the famous Sonmath temple on the western coast. He chose a route via Multan and barren deserts so that he did not have to encounter opposition from the Hindu kings. The 20.000 strong army of the Chalukya king could not stop him and he reached Somnath. This was a well guarded fort and a siege was laid to it. After a bitter struggle lasting for several days, Muhammad penetrated the fort, broke the idol and looted all the temple treasure. He chose another infrequent and difficult route so that the neighbouring powerful Hindu kings could not avenge the desecration and recover the loot. But in the process he could barely manage to reach Ghazni and enroute the Jats of Sindh looted much of the wealth carried away from Somnath. It is obvious that the accounts of Muslim historians are highly exaggerated. It will be a surprise to many that he had a large Hindu army which he obviously did not use in India. Muhammad died in 1030 AD and there was a fratricidal struggle for the throne which ultimately resulted in the end of this dynasty.

Muhammad’s raids encouraged other Muslims also to carry out surprise raids and one such party even reached Banaras. The Hindu chiefs got together and decided to meet the challenge. They joined forces and attacked the Muslim army at Kahsala and convincingly defeated it. The Ghaznavides were completely routed from all areas except Multan and Lahore. (This happened in June 1033 AD, and Raja Bhoj played a great role in routing the Ghaznavides, led by Mahmud Ghazni’s nephew Salar Masud Ghazni). For the next few decades the Hindus lived in peace but they did not make any effort to eliminate the marauders from the subcontinent. In fact many Muslim merchants, Sufis and Mullahs settled in various parts of the country and later acted as spies.

Meanwhile the Ghoris replaced the Ghaznis in Kabul. Shahahuddin Ghori fortified Multan and attacked Gujarat but his army was routed. He therefore captured southern Sindh and Lahore. Prithviraj Chauhan ruled Delhi then. Ghori attacked the Bhatinda fort in 1189 AD and captured it because of lax defense. Prithviraj was annoyed and with a large army laid a siege in 1191. In the fierce battle that ensued Shahabuddin’s army was completely routed and he had to flee. Several more attacks were made but they were repulsed. But at no time did the Hindus wage an attack on enemy territory to eliminate the enemy from our soil. Our tactics were purely defensive. Shahabuddin now practiced deceit. He first sent a message asking Prithviraj to become a Muslim. When this was refused he asked for truce until he received his brother’s instructions. Prithviraj fell for the ruse and spent the night in revelry. The same night Ghori made a surprise attack from the rear. In the Fierce battle that ensued, Prithviraj lost his life and Delhi fell into the hands of the Muslims. Since Shahabuddin did not have enough resources to man such a vast territory he appointed Hindu governors. The other kings put up some resistance but since they did not fight unitedly they were eventually defeated. The chronology so far can be briefly stated as follows

713-715 AD Sindli occupied

716 Hindu rule restored in Sindh

775 Cities of Multan and Mansurah and small regions around these captured

853 Capture of Seistan in Afghanistan

870 Capture of Kabul

1026 Muslims occupy Afghanistan

1030 Lahore captured by Muslims

1192 Fall of Delhi

1200 Bengal invaded

It will be seen that the initial political progress of Islam in the subcontinent was slow and halting. But now large parts of India were under their control from 1200 to 1800 AD i.e. for six centuries out of about twelve centuries of their presence in the subcontinent. The Table below indicates the approximate period for important territories under their control.

Region Period Duration (Years)

Sindh 700-1853AD One thousand one hundred and fifty

NWFP 1000-1812 Eight hundred

Punjab 1027-1800 Seven hundred seventy five

Delhi 1196-1784 Six hundred

Kashmir Valley 1326-1812 Five hundred

Ladaakh 1660-1820 One hundred seventy five

Himachal Pradesh 1650-1800 One hundred fifty

Uttar Pradesh 1200-1800 Six hundred

Bihar 1200-1757 Five hundred fifty

Bengal 1206-1757 Five hundred fifty

Orissa 1568-1750 One hundred seventy five

Assam 1660-1670 Ten

MP-Malwa 1300-1740 Four hundred fifty

MP-Chattisgarh 1640-1715 One hundred seventy five

Gejerat 1300-1740 Four hundred forty

Maharashtra 1317-1664 Three hundred fifty

North Karnataka 1320-1760 Four hundred forty

South Karnataka 1760-1800 Forty

West Andhra 1340-1800 Five hundred

South Andhra 1640-1800 One hundred fifty

East Andhra 1575-1752 One hundred seventy five

North Tamilnadu 1650-1775 One hundred twenty five

North Kerala 1764-1792 Twenty eight

South TN & Kerala Nil

Source : Bharatiya Musaman : Shodh ani Bodh, Setumadhavrao Pagadi (Pune, 1986), P.48

Establishing the Empire

Shahabuddin appointed Kutubuddin Aibak, his Turkish slave as his representative in India. In 1197, Kanauj, Janupur and Mirzapur came under his control. But Gujarat managed to repulse him and remained independent for another century. One Khilji marched towards Bihar and Bengal but the rulers there held on for some time. His army was repulsed from Assam.

Looking a little ahead, we see that the Turks took another two centuries to consolidate their hold over all of India. The Mughals, particularly after Akbar’s reign, become emperors of India. But this empire collapsed like ‘autumn leaves’ within a decade or so after Auragzeb’s death in 1707 AD, i.e. a century after Akbar’s death.

Shahabuddin Ghori was murdered in 1206 AD and since his successors were weak, Aibak managed to become the Sultan and ruled until 1210 AD. After a brief rule by his son, his son-in-law, Iltutmish seized power and ruled until 1235 AD. During his reign the dreaded Chengiz Khan the Mongol (Mongols or Hoons as we called them were from the Central Asian steppes and were nominally Buddhists then), after destroying the Islamic kingdoms elsewhere came upto Indus in 1221 in pursuit of a Muslim king and caused a scare. lltutmish put down a number of rebellious governors and also was the first Muslim ruler to be recognised as a Sultan by the Caliph of Baghdad. He expanded his territory by annexing Gwalior and Malwa. The famous Mahakal temple of Ujjain was destroyed. A number of his descendants including his well known daughter Razia ruled until 1266 AD. In 1241 the Mughals, who were Buddhists then entered the country and killed a number of Muslims.

In 1266 AD, Balban, a Turk and a powerful Wazir of the last Sultan killed him (despite the fact that two daughters of the Sultan were married to Balban and his son as well as the Sultan, in turn, marrying Balban’s daughter!) and ruled during 1266-87 AD. He was a mild ruler and did not unnecessarily harass the Hindus. The shock of the death of his prince-designate by the Mughal raiders (who were still Buddhists) at Lahore in 1285, killed him. He was a firm believer in Turkish superiority.

After Balban’s death, his grandson succeeded him but was overthrown by the powerful army general, Jalaluddin Khilji, an Afghan, in 1290. He was a humane ruler but an iconoclast. Under his leadership the Muslim army was victorious against the Buddhist Mughals and Chinghiz Khan’s grandson, Ulghu, became a Muslim along with his companions. They stayed on in India and were called ‘New Musalmans’. In 1296 AD, his nephew and son-in-law, Allauddin, for the first time crossed the Vindhyas and subdued the Yadava king, Ramdeo, at Deogiri and collected a huge ransom. When the Sultan went to congratulate him, he was ruthlessly murdered and Allauddin proceeded to crown himself after eliminating other rivals. He next overran Gujerat and plundered many temples including Somnath. He also repulsed repeated attacks of the Mughals. With great efforts and treachery the impregnable fort of Ranthambhor was captured. He next turned his eyes towards Chitor which was captured after eight month’s siege in 1303 AD. Padmini and other women committed Jauhar. Gradually Mandu, Dhar, Ujjain and Chanderi were also taken and Allauddin became the emperor of North India.

Now Allauddin turned his attention to south of the Vindhyas. He defeated Ramdeo again but treated him honourably and married his daughter so that he had a Hindu ally in South. He now sent his able general, Malik Kafur, further south, Kafur attacked and made successful treaties with the kings of Warangal and Hoysala. The Pandyan territory was attacked next and Kafur returned to Delhi in 1311 AD with a large booty. Ramdeo died in 1312, and his son resisted the Muslims. Again Kafur raided the south and killed him and installed another king. The other kingdoms were also raided again and vast loot collected. The southern Hindu kings unfortunately did not learn any lesson like their northern counterparts to resist the onslaught unitedly. These raids like those of Ghazni’s earlier, did not annex the south politically but facilitated establishment of small Muslim kingdoms in the south.

Allauddin died in 1316 AD and thus ended the career of the ‘most ruthless empire builder and conqueror in the world history’. He, in fact, wanted to be a prophet of a new religion. He was selfish and arrogant, suspicious, cruel and unscrupulous, Kafur nominated his son as successor and began a very repressive career but was himself beheaded shortly afterwards by his numerous enemies. After a period of confusion, one Ghazi Malik Tughlak of Turkish blood (1320-25 AD) ultimately crowned himself Sultan under the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlak. Warangal was annexed and authority established over Bengal and North Bihar. He was killed by his son who assumed the title, Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlak Shah and ruled from 1325 to 1350 AD. He was a perverted genius and remembered for many eccentricities like shifting his capital to Daulatabad (Deogiri) in Deccan. He had scant respect for the Ulema and did not persecute Hindus or desecrate temples.

A Period Of Confusion And Turbulence

Rebellions took place all over but were crushed. The empire covered almost the whole of India except Rajasthan. Unfortunately it lasted for only about fifteen years and it took another two hundred fifty years before a full fledged Mughal empire could again be established. But Tughlak’s policy of replacing local Hindu chieftains with Muslim governors enabled the establishment of many local Muslim kingdoms and hence Muslims effectively ruled a large portion of India during this period. In his last days one Hasan Gangu assumed the title of Allauddin Bahman (Brahman) Shah and established the Bahamani kingdom in the South. The Sultan was succeeded by his cousin, Firoz Shah (1351-88 AD). He was a mild ruler hut an iconoclast and destroyed many temples like those of Puri and Jwalamukhi. He was followed by a number of successors from his family.

This period will be remembered for the invasion of the country by the notorious Timur-i-lang, of Turkish-Mughal ancestry, who invaded the country from his capital in Samarkand and massacred Hindus in millions and plundered their homes and temples in 1398 AD. He came with the express purpose of butchering the infidels and retired immediately but not before taking a number of skilled Hindu craftsmen as prisoners to his lands for construction of edifices there. He has rightly been regarded as an anti-Hindu robot, a barbarian without parallel.

This was a period of great confusion and the Sayyids ruled regions around Delhi between 1414-51 AD. They were not very competent and their rule extended only in regions around Delhi. They were succeeded by the Afghani Lodis (1451-1526 AD). Bahlul was the first ruler who reconquered the neighboring territories so that his rule extended from the Punjab to the western frontiers of Bihar. Hs son Sikandar (1489-1517 AD) extended it to Bihar and Bengal. He shifted his capital to Agra. He desecrated the shrines in Mathura and constantly humiliated the Hindus. After his death, lbrahim ascended the throne after killing his brother. He treated his nobles so badly that they invited Babar, the then king of Kabul and Kandahar, and a descendent of Chingiz Khan and Timur. Babar had already attempted unsuccessfully to penetrate India. But now he descended with full force and in the first battle of Panipat in 1526 AD defeated lbrahim and became the ruler and started a new epoch in Indian history. Thus during this period between 1206 and 1526 AD there were as many as 28 rulers from numerous dynasties.

The Mughal Rule

Babar First had to establish his rule by defeating the local Muslim chieftains and Rajputs. He won because of his superior artillery power. Rana Sanga the famous king of Chitor as well as the sultan of Bengal were defeated. But Babar had to return to Kabul to quell rebellions there where he died in 1530. His son, Humayun, succeeded him and continued the wars with local rulers. He was kind and generous but

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a weak, easy-going ruler. Unfortunately he had to fight his own brothers and cousins at every stage. Bahadur Shah of Gujerat annexed Malwa and Chitor and entered into a treaty with Sher Shah. Humayun marched against him and defeated him. Sher Shah, however, proved to be more wily and made Humayun’s position insecure by alternately fighting and entering into friendship treaties. It was a tussle between the Afghans and the Moghuls. Ultimately Humayun had to go into exile in Kabul in 1540 AD while Sher Shah ruled Delhi from Punjab to Bengal. Sher Shah was a bigoted ruler and ruthlessly destroyed Hindu kingdoms and temples in Central India. He was an efficient administrator and the systems he set up in his short rule were followed in total by the subsequent Mughal rulers. He died in 1545 AD and again there was a vacuum. Humayun saw an opportunity and captured Lahore in 1555 AD. Unfortunately he met with an accident and died in 1556.

His young son, Akbar, succeeded him. Since he was only 14, his regent Bairam Khan managed his kingdom and enabled him to consolidate his kingdom by winning the second battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu, the Hindu general of Shah Adali. He also captured Ajmer and Gwalior. The other nobles were envious of Bairam who ultimately died in court intrigues. Akbar now became the undisputed ruler. He made a significant move by befriending the Rajputs who were appointed by him in senior positions. Thus his sway also extended to Rajasthan which had mostly escaped the Muslim rule so far. Only the famous Rana Pratap refused to succumb, but was ultimately defeated after a glorious resistance. Similarly Rani Durgavati of Gondwana was defeated in an unprovoked attack although she fought with courage and determination. Sindh and Kandahar were also taken and Akbar became the undisputed master of North India.

Meanwhile in the South, the Bahamani kingdom continued to prosper after the death of Muhammad Tughlak and held sway over the Deccan until it split into five kingdoms around 1590 due to rivalry between the foreign and local Muslims. Akbar saw a good opportunity to penetrate the territory south of the Vindhyas. With some effort he managed to annex Berar, Ahmednagar, Khjandesh and Bijapur and declared himself the emperor of Deccan in 1602.

Akbar’s last days were not happy. Two of his sons died and Salim (later Jehangir) raised a banner of revolt. The great emperior died of stomach ailment in 1605. He was succeeded by Jehangir who continued the policy of putting trust in Hindu officers but turned away from his father’s liberal attitude towards Hindus although he did not excessively harass them. He however put to death the Sikh guru Arjun Singh and destroyed several Jain temples. He won the impregnable fort of Kangra and also subdued the Mewar Rana.

Court intrigues involving his sons and wife Noorjahan prevailed and the emperior died in 1627 to be succeeded by his son Khurram or Shahjahan. Immediately on accession Shahjahan had to face rebellion from the Bundelas. They were conquered by his son Aurangzeb who treated the Hindu prisoners with terrible inhumanity typical to him. The Bundelas were not completely subdued and later the Chatrasal challenged the authority of the Mughals. The emphasis under Shahjahan was more on loot than conversions and Deccan was particularly affected with ‘Asmani and Sultani’, the wrath of God and the Muslim marauders. Deccan was constantly plunged into warfare with wars between Mughals led by Aurangzeb and the Bijapur and Nizamshahi kingdoms.

In 1657 Shahjahan fell ill and the usual terrible process of succession commenced amongst his sons. The eldest, Prince Dara, a true admirer of Hindu scriptures, had been earlier been appointed successor but the crafty Aurangzeb eliminated his brothers one by one, put his fater in prison and became emperior in 1658 and until his death in 1707 for fifty long years proved to be an unmitigated curse on the Hindus. He expanded his empire to cover almost the whole of India but at the same time planted the seeds of its destruction by alienating Hindus completely.


At this stage it will be necessary to briefly trace the Hindu resistance offered by the South5 as Aurangzeb spent most of his later life in the South to annex it to the empire. As we have seen Allauddin Khilji first crossed the Vindhyas in 1296 AD but did not establish a Muslim rule. Later Muhammad Tughlak decided to extend his domination to the South by making Deogiri his capital. Although this scheme failed, it enabled the establishment of the stable Bahamani kingdom covering central and northeast peninsula. The northwest was added later. But the south remained essentially unmolested as seen in the above Table. And ultimately it was the south which preserved our culture and loosened the grip of Islam from the whole of India. Unfortunately before a stable Hindu rule could be established the British took over the reigns.

We have earlier seen that when Malik Kafur raided the south, the Hindu kingdoms of the Hoysala, Kakatiya and Pandya were defeated now and then but continued their rule by offering heroic resistance. The kingdom of Kamapili comprising of Anantpur, Dharwar and Raichur could not however be subjugated by Malik Kafur’s invasion during 1313-15. But the king was killed in subsequent battles around 1328 and his sons, Harihar and Bukka were converted by force and appointed to be in charge of Kampili. But they were defeated by king Ballal and were wandering around as fugitives. They met Swami Vidyaranya who reconverted them and under his inspiring guidance and along with several Hindu chieftains who had successfully rebelled against the Muslims the foundation of the great Vijaynagar Empire was laid in 1336 AD. Under several able kings the empire expanded and ultimately ruled whole of south India, south of rivers Tungabhadra / Krishna. Under Krishnadevaraya (1509-29) the empire was at its zenith. Meanwhile the Bahamani kingdom which ruled to the north split into five kingdoms around 1500 AD but the fighting continued. Ultimately all the five powers together marched against Vijayanagar and in the battle of Talikota in 1565, defeated the Hindus.

General confusion reigned in the south with several small dynasties springing up everywhere and the Bahamani kingdoms invading these regions every now and then. It was only after the advent of the Marathas under Shivaji that Hindu rule was finally established. The great Shivaji was born in 1630 and inspired by his mother and tutor steadily and astutely built up his kingdom by simultaneously tackling hostile powers like the Mughals, Adishahi and Nizamshahi. By the time he died in 1680 he had laid the firm foundation for a Hindu empire. His son, Sambhaji, too was brave and despite opposition from Soyarabai, his stepmother (His real mother Saibai passed away when he was 2 years old) he bravely defended the Maratha empire for 9 years- from 1680 to 1689 facing combined opposition. When the Maratha war of independence began Aurangazeb got Adilshah, Qutubshah, Portuguese and Siddique together against Sambhaji, who fought for till AD 1687 bravely defending the empire against five combined powers simultaneously. Aurangazeb realized that that despite trying his utmost to destroy the Marathas, he could not achieve an easy victory for them and hence he suspended his campaign andturned to Qutubshah and Adilshah kingdoms, which he conquered in AD 1686 and 1687 and then returned to war against Marathas. However due to treachery from some of the own people Sambhaji was captured and tortured to death by Aurgangzeb on 11 March 1689 who personally came down to the south in 1682 after Shivaji’s death to vanquish the Marathas and other rulers and extend the Mughal empire all over India.

The Marathas were shocked and resolved to take revenge under, Rajaram, the younger son of Shivaji. The mighty forces of the Mughals hounded them and Rajaram had to run from one place to another for safety. The Marathas under able generals, Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav hit back with a vengeance adopting the guerrilla tactics perfected by Shivaji and the Emperior did not have a moment of peace until he died, a frustrated and disillusioned old man in 1707. His successors were weak and the empire existed nominally only around Delhi, buffeted and bullied by various forces.

The Marathas under the able guidance of the first three Peshwas largely liberated the country from Muslim misrule and established the Maratha empire over a large portion of central and northern India. Unfortunately due to faulty strategy they lost the key battle of Panipat in 1761 with the Afghan invader, Ahmad Shah Abdali who was invited by disgruntled Muslim nobles to attack India. The Maratha losses both in manpower and resources were enormous and they did not recover from this blow. Actually even after this battle, Madhavrao Peshwe who ruled from 1761 to 1772 AD re-established Maratha supremacy in the North and Marathas were powerful rulers of North till at least AD 1794. Abdali although victorious, had to return to his native land since he realized that he could not establish his rule permanently due to Maratha opposition.


Again there was a period of confusion all over the country providing an ideal opportunity for the crafty British to establish their hegemony. After winning the battle of Plassey in 1757 they grew from strength to strength and gradually consolidated their hold by defeating several chieftains like Hyder, Tipu and the Nizam in south and Hindu and Muslim rulers in the north and annexing their territories. After defeating the Peshwas in 1818 their supremacy was absolute and they ruled this country for a long period of nearly one hundred and fifty years until they departed in 1947.

As far as the Muslim question is concerned, the departure of the British resurrected the problem once more since they partitioned the subcontinent on the basis of religion. Muslim countries, Pakistan and Bangladesh were carved out which resulted in a great holocaust for Hindus living there. The events leading to this tragedy and its aftermath have been brilliantly discussed in ‘The Tragic Story of Partition’6 and ‘Hindus Betrayed’7. Even in the Hindu Indian Union, due to the so called secularist policies of the government, Muslims have again started to assert themselves and coupled with their high growth as brought out in Chapter 6 we can be certain of further partitions in the near future unless remedial measures are taken on a war footing.


  1. 1. Encounter with Islam, Ed. S. D. Kulkarni, BHISHMA Series, Vol. 6, Mumbai, 1990
  2. 2. Bharatiya Musalman, Shodh ani Bodh (in Marathi), Sethumadhavrao Pagadi, Parchure Prakashan, Mumbai, 1986
  3. 3. The Middle East – A Brief History of the Last 2000 Years, Bernard Lewis, Touchstone, New York, 1995, (Chapter 5)
  4. 4. Reprint of Pakistan Or The partition of India, Vol. 8, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, Education Dept; Govt. of Maharashtra, 1990
  5. 5. The Struggle for Hindu Supremacy, Ed. S. D. Kulkarni, BHISHMA Series, Vol. 7, Mumbai, 1992
  6. 6. The Tragic Story of Partition, H. V. Seshadri, Jagarana Prakashana, 1984
  7. 7. Hindus Betrayed, Kanayalal M. Talreja and R. S. Narayanswami, Rashtriya Chetana Sangathan New Delhi, 1997.
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Rabindranath Tagore

Christianity and Islam determined to destroy all other Religions : There are two religions in earth, which have distinct enmity against all other religions. These two are Christianity and Islam. They are not just satisfied with observing their own religions, but are determined to destroy all other religions. That’s why the only way to make peace with them is to embrace their religions.” (Origional works of Rabindranath Vol. 24 page 375, Vishwa Bharti; 1982)

Muslims can not confine their ‘Patriotism to any one country’ : A very important factor which is making it almost impossible for Hindu-Muslim unity to become an accomplished fact is that the Muslims can not confine their patriotism to any one country. I had frankly asked (the Muslims) whether in the event of any Mohammedan power invading India, they (Muslims) would stand side by side with their Hindu neighbours to defend their common land. I was not satisfied with the reply I got from them… Even such a man as Mr. Mohammad Ali (one of the famous Ali brothers, the leader of the Khilafat Movement – the compiler has declared that under no circumstances is it permissible for any Mohammedan, whatever be his country, to stand against any Mohammedan.” (Interview of Rabindranath in ‘Times of India’, 18-4-1924 in the column, ‘Through Indian Eyes on the Post Khilafat Hindu Muslim Riots)

Hindus and Muslims can make a fake friendship : Whenever a Muslim called upon the Muslim society, he never faced any resistance-he called in the name of one God ‘Allah-ho-Akbar’. On the other hand, when we (Hindus) call will call, ‘come on, Hindus’, who will respond? We, the Hindus, are divided in numerous small communities, many barriers-provincialism-who will respond overcoming all these obstacles?

“We suffered from many dangers, but we could never be united. When Mohammed Ghouri brought the first blow from outside, the Hindus could not be united, even in the those days of imminent danger. When the Muslims started to demolish the temples one after another, and to break the idols of Gods and Goddesses, the Hindus fought and died in small units, but they could not be united. It has been provided that we were killed in different ages due to out discord.

“Weakness harbors sin. So, if the Muslims beat us and we, the Hindus, tolerate this without resistance-then, we will know that it is made possible only by our weakness. For the sake of ourselves and our neighbour Muslims also, we have to discard our weakness. We can appeal to our neighbour Muslims, ‘Please don’t be cruel to us. No religion can be based on genocide’ –but this kind of appeal is nothing, but the weeping of the weak persons. When the low pressure is created in the air, storm comes spontaneously; nobody can stop it for sake of religion. Similarly, if weakness is cherished and be allowed to exist, torture comes automatically-nobody can stop it. Possibly, the Hindus and the Muslims can make a fake friendship to each other for a while, but that can not last for ever. As long as you don’t purify the soil, which grows only thorny shrubs you can not expect any fruit.” (The above is the part of the article “Swamy Shraddananda’, written by Rabindranath in Magh, 1333 Bangabda; compiled in the book ‘Kalantar’)

Own religion true-others are false : “When two-three different religions claim that only their own religions are true and all other religions are false, their religions are only ways to Heaven, conflicts can not be avoided. Thus, fundamentalism tries to abolish all other religions. This is called Bolshevism in religion. Only the path shown by the Hinduism can relieve the world from this meanness.” (The above is the part of the article ‘Atmaparichay’ in his book ‘Parichay’)

Make your children strong : The terrible situation of the country makes my mind restless and I can not keep silent. Meaningless rituals keep the Hindus divided in hundred sects. So we are suffering from series of defeats. We are tired and worn-out by the fortunes by the internal and external enemies. The Muslims are united in religion and rituals. The Bengali Muslims, the South Indian Muslims and even the Muslims outside India-all are united. They always stand united in face of danger. The broken and divided Hindus will not be able to combat them. Days are coming when the Hindus will be again humiliated by the Muslims.

“You ar a mother of children, one day you will die, passing the future of Hindu society on the weak shoulders of your children, but thing about their future.” (From the letter to Hemantabala Sarkar, written on 16th Oct, 1933, quoted in Bengali weekly ‘Swastika’, 21-6-1999)


The religion of Islam

Islam, although the youngest of the world’s major religions is the second largest and fastest growing religion in the world, presently constituting 20% of the world’s population and as shown elsewhere is likely to overtake Christianity at the global level, and to overtake Hinduism in the subcontinent by around the year 2050 AD. In the Indian subcontinent the number of Muslims in 1991 was 323 million and constituted around 30% percent of the world Muslim population.

Muslims have always aggressively held that Islam is the only perfect and the final religion created by God. Unlike ancient religions like Hinduism and Taoism (which they contend are unhistorical religions based on mythology alone), they declare that Islam is a historical religion with all events and teachings truthfully recorded. It is THE final revelation of God. In this and the next chapter we propose to examine these claims. It is important to do this so that we can better understand the psychology of Muslims in general and the Muslims of the subcontinent in particular. The tenets of Islam are briefly covered in Appendix D. In this chapter we shall review their claims of historicity and also survey their basic scriptures and beliefs. This will enable us to philosophically examine this religion alongside with Christianity, its sister religion, in the next chapter before we proceed to study the religion in our subcontinent in the subsequent chapters.


According to the accepted version of the origin of Islam, the founder of this religion was Muhammad who was born in Mecca, Arabia in 570 AD. As an orphan he was brought up by his grandfather and uncle who belonged to a well known family in the Kuraish tribe. He was a sensitive young man given to deep contemplation and often went to a nearby mountain for meditation. There in 610 AD, he had a vision of the angel Gabriel who declared that God or Allah had chosen him to be the prophet of the true religion and also that he, Muhammad would be the last of the prophets of the Abrahamic faiths. The Angel was a go-between Allah and Muhammad and continued to give revelations until the end of Muhammad’s life. Muhammad had earlier married a rich widow, his employer, and carried on trade on her behalf for which he had to travel extensively across the nearby regions in the course of which he came into contact with several Jewish and Christian groups and studied their practices closely. He shared his revelations with close friends and relatives who became his first followers. After his death the revelations were collected together from various sources and came to be known as the Koran. Later on, ‘acting upon the advice of the Angel, he started to preach his religion openly which brought him into conflict with fellow Meccans who were polytheists. Ultimately he had to migrate to Medina in 622 AD. This year is taken as the start of the Muslim era. In Medina he consolidated his position and ultimately captured Mecca in 630 AD. He became the undisputed master of Arabia and consolidated his hold over the whole of the country and converted the Arabs of his country to his religion which he called Islam or ‘peace’. He died in 632 AD. His successors, the Caliphs, continued his mission-of; conquest and within one hundred years of the Prophet’s death, the Arabs became masters of a vast region extending from the Bay of Biscay to the Indus and the frontiers of China, from the Aral sea to the Upper Nile. The traditional chronology of the more important events in the early years of Islam, is given in Appendix B.

A study of Islamic scriptures reveals that Muhammad was not a original thinker; he did not formulate any new ethical principle or philosophy, but merely borrowed them from existing traditions and faiths. His genius lay in mixing old ingredients of Judaism, Zoroastrianism and the ‘pagan’ Arab rituals into a new panacea for human ills and forcing it down by means of the sword. It is obvious to anyone who has some knowledge of religions and traditions of the time that the Islamic varnish only thinly covers the prevalent Arab rituals and superstitions (particularly pilgrimage to Mecca).

According to Ali Dashti1 Muhammad himself emerges as a shifty character who stoops to political assassinations, murder and elimination of all opponents. ‘Pious Fraud’ is an approved strategy in Islam. This verdict of Muir, one of the earliest English biographers, is accepted by non-apologist western authors. His other verdict which has also been accepted is that in Mecca, Muhammad, was a sincere seeker of truth and religiously motivated, but in Medina he showed his feet of clay and was corrupted by power and worldly ambitions. His revelations appear to come very conveniently; and as his pet wife Aisha has put it, not without a touch of irony it would seem, ‘Truly your God seems to have been very quick in fulfilling your prayers’.

The traditional Muslim accounts of the life of Muhammad and the story of the origin and rise of Islam are based exclusively on Muslim sources, namely, (1) the Koran (2) the Muslim biographies of Muhammad and (3) the Hadith. We shall briefly examine their content and authenticity.

The first biography known to us of the Prophet was written one hundred and twenty years after his death, by lbn Ishaq (d. 768 AD). The original is lost and is only available in parts in a later biography by Ibn Hisharm (and an even later biography by AI-Tabari) who died in 834 AD, two hundred years after the death of the Prophet. The other popular biographies have been written only after the first two hundred years. This long interval along with the other factors discussed below throws doubts on the authenticity of the material available from these biographies. A recent book, ‘The Quest for the Historical Muhammad’ edited by lbn Waraq (Prometheus Books, March 2000) has dealt with precisely this issue of historicity.

The Hadith or Hadis is greatly revered in the Islamic world and consists of a collection of saying.and doings attributed to the Prophet and traced back to him through a chain of supposedly trustworthy witnesses called ‘isnad’. Six authentic collections written in the ninth century are available, and an encyclopedia of 29000 traditions called Musnad has been compiled by Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855 AD). Since the Koran does not cover all aspects of the religion and law, and since the Muslims consider the life of the Prophet as the Divine force in action, the sayings and doings of the Prophet compiled in the Hadith along with the Koran guide the jurisprudence of Islam.



It has been generally held that amongst the world’s major religions, only the historicity of Muhammad and Koran are undisputed and that the details of his life are more historically verifiable than the founders of other major religions. Recent findings suggest that this claim is not true and in fact, there is now a strong view that there has been a large scale fabrication of the prophet’s life and scriptures and that there has been a considerable influence of neighbouring religions and rituals as well as traditional pagan Arabian faiths and rituals. The present position has been neatly summed up by lbn Warraq in his book, ‘Why I am not a Muslim?’2. Unfortunately this book has been banned in India and therefore we can only list the original sources to which the reader is requested to refer for detailed information. The reviews of this book have been collected and summarised in ‘Time for Stock Taking.3

Speaking of historicity, many Indian scholars feel that the Mecca shrine, Kaba, the chief mosque of Islam itself was originally a Shiva temple and quote a Sanskrit verse to prove the same. P. N. Oak, 4 who has done pioneering studies in proving the Hindu origin of several ‘Muslim’ monuments in India, claims that the word Arabia itself is derived from Arvastan i.e. land of horses (Arva = horse in Sanskrit). He says that it was a part of Vikramaditya’s empire and the shrine was built by him. As a proof, he quotes some verses of pre-lslamic poetry preserved on gold and leather plates which escaped the destruction after Muhammad took over Kaba. These poems are part of an anthology of pre-lslamic Arab poetry known as ‘sayar-ul-okul’ compiled by Harun-al-Rashid and published in 1864 AD in Berlin. Oak also claims that the Prophet’s clan was mostly Hindu. Unfortunately no traces of the old Arabian culture has been left by Islam. Hindu scholars have to pursue this research further with whatever meagre evidence that is available.

Towards the end of nineteenth century, Western scholars began the process of sifting all available information and data on Islam since there was some suspicion that some of the traditions were deliberately forged in order to further the interests of certain groups and families. Wellhausen divided the historical traditions into two categories – the apparently authentic primitive traditions, which have been recorded in the late eighth century, and second, a parallel tradition that was deliberately forged to rebut the first. The second version was found to be full of tendentious fiction. Goldziher, another reputed scholar of the era, studied the Hadith extensively and demonstrated that a vast number of hadiths accepted even in the most rigorously critical Muslim collections were outright forgeries compiled from around the late 8th and 9th centuries.5 The reason for this parallel tradition can be traced to the politics of competition among the early successors of the Prophet, who had often assumed his mantle after eliminating their predecessors with great blood shed; and had hence to humiliate their memory and that of their forefathers through their version of the tradition, apart from proving their own legitimacy (see chronology of early Islam in Appendix B). Under the Abbasids (progeny of the Prophet’s uncle), the fabrication of hadiths greatly multiplied, with the explicit purpose of proving the legitimacy of their own clan as against that of the Alids (progeny of Ali, cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet). The storytellers also excelled in inventing entertaining hadiths in order to make a fortune by drawing large crowds. Of course Muslims scholars were aware that forgeries abounded and attempted to eliminate many of them in the six authentic collections. But even these were not free from later interpolations an therefore there are several texts of the Hadith in use.

Since the biographies on the Prophet appeared much after his death and were based on these traditions, the early twentieth century scholars working at that time considered them suspect.6 Their conclusions were subsequently investigated by a group of Soviet Islamologists7 who concluded that the life of Muhammad and that of his immediate successors are as ‘mythical’ as the accounts of Christ and the Apostles (discussed later) and that Islam was merely an offshoot of Arianism (a Greek Christian doctrine) and that the Arian Islamites were indistinguishable from the Jews until the impact of the Crusades made them assume a separate identity. In fact some of them wondered if Muhammad was not a necessary fiction since every ‘historical’ religion must needs have a founder.

From the 1950s, Islamic studies received a further impetus under Schacht8 His conclusions were even more radical and disturbing. He proved that many Islamic traditions did not exist at a particular time by showing, for example, that they were not used as a legal argument in a discussion that would have made reference to them imperative, had these traditions existed. He in fact concluded that every tradition allegedly traced back in time to the Prophet must be considered inauthentic and the Fictitious expression of a legal doctrine formulated at a later date! Traditions introduced from around the time of the Successors (to the Prophet) were offered as traditions from the time of the Companions (contemporaries of the Prophet), and traditions from the time of the Companions to the Prophet were offered as traditions practiced by the Prophet himself. Details from the life of the Prophet were invented to support legal doctrines. He also showed that the beginnings of the Islamic law cannot be traced further back in the Islamic tradition, than to about a century after the Prophet’s death. Thus it did not directly derive from the Koran, but developed out of popular and administrative practices under the Urnmayads which diverged often from the intentions and even the explicit wording of the Koran. The integration of the two was done at a later stage.

Many scholars were convinced of the essential soundness of Schacht’s analysis and developed his thesis further. Wansbrough9 argued that the Koran and the hadith grew out of sectarian controversies over the course of a long period and then were projected back in time onto an invented Arabian point of origin. He felt that Islam emerged only when it came into contact with rabbinical Judaism,

The Koran

Doubts over the authenticity of the Hadith prompted scholars to take a critical look at the Koran too. As we have seen earlier, Muslims claim the Koran to be a historically verifiable scripture, which is the collection of the revelations of Allah through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet. These revelations were communicated by the prophet to various persons in his lifetime and many others were taken down by Muhammad’s scribes. According to one tradition, after Muhammad’s death, the first Caliph, Abu Bakr, appointed the former secretary and scribe of the Prophet, Zayd ibn Thabit, to undertake the task of collecting all available material and compile it together. He collected them ‘from pieces of papyrus, flat stones, palm leaves, shoulder blades and ribs of animals, pieces of leather and wooden boards, as well as from the hearts of men’. He compiled all the material in the amazingly short span of two years and handed it over to the Caliph. The Suras or chapters in the Koran have been so arranged that the longest suras find place in the beginning and the shortest in the end. Thus there is no way of knowing when, exactly the Prophet received a particular revelation. This becomes important since the message of a particular revelation, as we shall see later, is often contradicted by the message of a later’ revelation. Scholars, both Muslim and Western have generally been able to separate the revelations received in Mecca and those in Medina since the message of Allah is conciliatory in the former and aggressive in the latter.

According to traditions many versions of the book began to be circulated and serious disputes arose. According to the traditions, the third Caliph, Uthman (650-656 AD) approached Zayd again to edit and prepare the official text. This was prepared and circulated widely and the other versions were destroyed. According to orthodoxy, this text has not undergone any change since then and is the standard version followed all over the world.

Historical research, however, indicates otherwise. Wansbrough showed that far from being fixed in the seventh century, the definitive text of Koran had still not been achieved even as late as the later part of the ninth century. Thus, a statement of Muslim creed, Fiqh Akbar I, dated to the middle of eighth century, does not refer to the Koran at all, which is quite surprising. The ninth century also saw the first collections of the ancient Arab poetry seeing the light of day, in which too there are instances of manipulation, as alleged by some scholars. Both have perhaps gone hand in hand with an attempt to prove the antiquity and sacredness of the Arabic language and culture so that God could hand over the Koran in pure Arabic. Very much influenced by rabbinic Judaism outside Arabia, the early Muslim community took Moses as a model and Muhammad’s credentials as a prophet were gradually established in Moses’ likeness. The aim was to have a swadeshi prophet and a scripture in competition with the Jews and Christians!

Both Islam and Christianity, in comparing themselves with pagan faiths to establish their superiority, claim historicity for their founders. But Western scholars have also questioned the historicity of Jesus Christ. They have shown that the gospels were written towards the end of the first century, some forty to eighty years after the supposed crucifixion of Christ, and that there was considerable interpolation afterwards. Thus the letters of Paul do not mention many extraordinary details of Jesus’ life. Even the post-Pauline letters written before 90 AD do not contain any convincing historical details. It now seems highly unlikely that any of the sayings attributed to Jesus in the Gospels was ever spoken by a historical figure. Hoffman10 concludes, ‘scholars now count it a certainty that the Gospels are compilations of “traditions” cherished by the early Christians rather than historical annals’.

The Koran extensively quotes from Pentateuch (called Taurat after Torah in Hebrew) i.e. the first five books of the Old Testament. Now the present opinion of the western scholars is that instead of being written by or revealed to Moses by God, it is a work of four different writers and edited by a fifth person around 400 BC. Hence the early prophets are probably not historic figures, but only legends.11

We have already seen that the same applies to Jesus. It is even doubted that they existed at all. Now the question arises that if the Biblical Prophets and their history is itself doubtful, what veracity does the Koran have as an eternal truth revealed by God himself, considering the fact that the Koran too acknowledges the old Testament to be an intrinsic part of the history of Islam.

The Last Prophet

A group of scholars, Cook, Crone and Hinds12 continuing the work of Wansbrough took an even more radical stand. They regarded the entire traditional Islamic history down at least to the time of Abd al Malik (685-705 AD) as a later fabrication. As a counter check, they studied the contemporary, neighbouring non-Muslim sources like the Greek, Syrian and Armenian. A totally unexpected picture emerged, as a result. The only facts they could confirm were that a merchant called Muhammad existed, that something significant happened to him in 622 (the year of Hijra), and that Abraham was central to his teachings. But there is no mention of Mecca, no indication that Muhammad’s career unfolded in inner Arabia and no reference to the Koran until the last years of the seventh century. Also, the Muslims prayed in a direction much further north than Mecca; hence their sanctuary could not have been in Mecca. Also when the first Koranic quotations appeared on coins and inscriptions towards the end of the seventh century, they showed divergence from the canonical texts. The earliest Greek source speaks of Muhammad being alive in 634 AD, two years after his death as per the accepted version of Islamic traditions. An Armenian chronicler of the 660s describes Muhammad as establishing a community which comprised both Arabs and Jews with the aim of conquering Palestine. The break with the Jews is placed immediately after the Arab conquest of Jerusalem. The oldest Greek source makes the sensational statement that the prophet who had appeared among the Arabs (Saracens) was proclaiming the coming of the (Jewish) messiah, and speaks of the Jews who mix with the Arabs, and the danger to life and limb by falling into the hands of these Jews and Arabs.

On the basis of available non Muslim evidence, Cook and Crone13 give a new account of the rise of Islam. Muhammad told his Arab followers that as descendants of Abraham through his first son, Ishmael they too had a claim to the land God had promised to Abraham and his seed. His message appeared as Judaic messianism which lead to intimacy with Jews and marked hostility towards Christians. The Arabs soon quarreled with the Jews and their attitude softened towards Christians. But they yet had to develop a religious identity and religious structures. Here they were influenced by Samaritan philosophy. The latter were an offshoot of the Jews but they had a separate identity. They only accepted Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament and had a high regard for Moses. Under their influence, the Arabs proceeded to pattern their faith after Moses as follows


Moses Exodus Pentateuch Mt. Sinai Shechem

Muhammad Hijra Koran Mt. Hira Mecca

Evidence Of Fabrication

1. There is no reference to Mecca in early non- Muslim references. Mecca was supposed to be a very flourishing trading centre as it was on the trade route from South to North Arabia (i.e. from India to Europe) when Muhammad was born, but Crone has shown that geographically it does not fall on this natural trade route. In fact, the alignment of early mosques and literary evidence of Christian sources, suggests that the direction in which the early Muslims prayed was northwest Arabia. Mecca was chosen as a Muslim sanctuary much later in order to relocate their history within Arabia, to complete their break with Judaism and finally to establish their separate religious identity.

2. According to the traditions, Koran had many versions and Utthman destroyed all but one. Similarly Hajja (661-714 AD), the governor of Iraq, had collected and destroyed all the writings of the early Muslims.

3. The Koran is strikingly lacking in overall structure. It appears to be a product of hasty and imperfect editing of materials from a plurality of traditions.

4. Many traditions in the Hadith appear to have been invented to explain the presence of some passages in Koran. Seemingly precise data seems to have been cooked up to provide authenticity. Thus the early historian, lbn Ishaq (d. 768) was vague about many events, whereas Waqidi (d. 823) gave precise dates and other details for the same events! If so much spurious information had accumulated in two generations, it is hard to avoid the conclusion that even more must have accumulated in the three generations between the Prophet and lbn Ishaq.

Having looked into the weak foundations on which stands the historical edifice of Islam, we shall next see the message of Koran.


The Koran or Quran is written in Arabic and is divided into chapters called suras or surhas and verses called ayah. There are 114 suras and about 6200 verses. Except for the first sura, the Fatihah, the longest sura is placed first and the shortest at the last, without any regard for their chronology, that is, the temporal order in which they were revealed to Muhammad. The original text, the Muslims believe, is in Heaven, and it is eternal and uncreated. To the Muslim, the Koran remains the final word of God sent down to Muhammad, God’s messenger, through the Angel Gabriel, in perfect Arabic. Not a single syllable can be altered. To a non-Muslim, the Koran although very poetic in many places and exhorting usual morality, is also tedious, repetitive and even shockingly violent.

Sometimes it appears that it is Muhammad himself who is speaking and not God! This difficulty has been obviated by inserting the phrase ‘say’ meaning that God has commanded Muhammad to speak thus. In a few cases the translators have themselves inserted ‘say’, not found in the Arabic original as in sura 6.104, 6.114, 27.91 and 17.1. Only Fatihah, a prayer or invocation, is an exception. But in some instances this leads to confusion. Thus in sura 111, where Muhammad’s uncle and bitter opponent, Abu Lahab is bitterly cursed, the words appear to be unworthy of ‘God’ (and even of a prophet). Even some Muslim scholars and laymen have felt that God could not have called such passages ‘a noble Koran on a well guarded tablet’. And if we were to apply the same reasoning to all parts of Koran, there would be very little that was suited to be the word of God, since very little in the Koran is worthy of a merciful and compassionate, all-wise God. We also have instances of the Almighty God praising Himself and swearing by Himself.

The Language

We have earlier seen that there is only one standard text approved by Uthman. But here the limitations of the Arabic script came into play. The text was unpointed (i.e. without dots) and hence many consonants like ‘b’ and ‘f’ or ‘th’ could not be distinguished from each other. This applied to several letters like ‘f and ‘q’, ‘t’ and ‘z’. Pointing was done much later and this led to a lot of confusion. The vowels presented even a worse problem since the Arabs had no linguistic symbols for short vowels. These were introduced much later, further adding to the confusion. Adams ‘“ notes, “it must be emphasised that far from there being a single text passed down inviolate from the times of Uthman’s commission, literally thousands of variant readings of particular verses were known”. Eventually in the tenth century, some standardization took place but even this resulted in fourteen possibilities. At present two versions of the Koran are in use. Hence it is very difficult to ascertain the exact word Allah had used originally.


Although the Koran has been declared to be in pure Arabic, scholars like Jeffery have identified around 275 words which may be considered to be ‘foreign’. Of course, Muslim scholars counter this allegation by pointing out that these words, although borrowed, were earlier a part of Arabic at the time of the Prophet. The word ‘Koran’ itself comes from the Syriac, and Muhammad evidently got it from Christian sources. Critics have also indicated the stylistic weaknesses of Koran. Ah Dashti estimates that there are more than one hundred aberrations from the normal rules and structure of Arabic.

Missing and Added Verses


It also appears that there are some missing verses and some added verses. For example, there is a tradition from the Prophet’s wife, Aisha, that there once existed a ‘verse of stoning’ where stoning to death was prescribed as punishment for fornication. This is no longer to be found in the accepted texts of the Koran and instead the Koranic punishment for this crime only prescribes one hundred lashes. But the early prophets carried out stoning for adultery, and Islamic law still prescribes it. According to the above tradition, more than one hundred verses from the original, are missing. Shiites of course claim that Uthman left out a great many verses favourable to Ali, for political reasons. Muhammad himself, as we know, is said to have suppressed the now famous Satanic Verses. The authenticity of many verges has been called into question not only by modern Western scholars, but even by Muslims themselves. On the other hand, most scholars believe that there are many interpolations making the Koranic style uneven. Some of them are of a political and dogmatic character, such as 42.36-38, which seems to have been added to justify the elevation of Uthman as Caliph to the detriment of Ali. Of course, any interpolation, however trivial, is fatal to the Muslim dogma that the Koran is literally the eternal, uncreated word of God revealed to Muhammad and thereafter unalterable and unchanged.

Contradictions And Abrogations


Far worse is the matter of abrogation or cancellation of passages in the Koran. The Koran abounds in contradictions and hence Muslim theologians have a rather convenient strategy by which they abrogate or replace certain passages and verses with other verses and passages with a contrary meaning, and which, they claim, was subsequently revealed by Allah to Muhammad. This problem of contradiction would never have arisen had there been a specific chronology of the revelations, which would have enabled us to determine which verse was given earlier and which later. In the absence of it, there is obviously a lot of arbitrariness in determining the time of the replaced verse. There has been some unanimity in determining the Meccan i.e. early suras and Medinan i.e. later suras. While the former has many passages preaching tolerance when Muhammad’s faith and supporters were still in a minority, the later Medinan suras, when Muhammad was already a winner, abound in intolerance like the famous verse of sura 9.5, ‘Slay the idolaters wherever you find them ‘. This verse, along with others given in Appendix A, obviously nullifies the earlier 124 verses that exhorted tolerance and patience, and which are quoted extensively by the Indian Muslim scholars to deny accusations that the Koran and Islam are inherently violent and intolerant.


As an example let us take the oft quoted short sura 109, ‘The Unbelievers’, thought to be a Meccan sura, which says, “Say: Unbelievers I do not worship what you worship, nor do you worship what I worship. I shall never worship what you worship, nor will you ever worship what I worship. You have your own religion, and I have mine. How can this be reconciled with the numerous examples given in Appendix A (sections on Idolaters and Instructions to Believers) which are mostly Medinan verses and preach hatred and intolerance? A reading of these directives from Allah leaves no doubt that so far as noil- Muslims are concerned, the Koran is not a religious book at all but a war manual and a penal code!

We also have strange incidences of an earlier verse cancelling a later one in the same sura. Thus verse 2.234 replaces verse 2.240 (dealing with maintenance of widows). In all, over 200 verses (some scholars estimate the figure to be 500, i.e. about 8% of Koran), have been cancelled or abrogated by later ones.


The doctrine of abrogation makes a mockery of the Muslim dogma that the Koran is a faithful and unalterable reproduction of the original scriptures that are preserved in heaven. If God’s words are eternal, uncreated and absolute, then how can we talk of God’s words being superseded or becoming obsolete? Are some words of God to be preferred to others? And who is to judge this? The doctrine of abrogation has indeed been very convenient to bale out Muslim scholars and politicians out of the difficulties that such questions create!


The Koran is unambiguously monotheistic. No other God except Allah is recognised and this has led to immense intolerance and violence. Now the question arises whether monotheism is essentially superior to polytheism. Philosophers like Schopenhaur and Hume have shown that intolerance is intrinsic to monotheism; an only God is by nature a jealous God who will not allow another to exist. On the other hand, polytheistic Gods are naturally tolerant, they live and let live as is seen in the non-abrahamic faiths in India and the rest of Asia and the pre-lslamic and pre-Christian faiths of Europe. Americans. thc Caribbean, Australia, New Zealand and Africa. Monotheistic intolerant dogmas like Christianity, Islam and Marxism have been responsible for almost all the violence, totalitarianism and destruction on earth.

But even monotheism after some time introduces mediators and agents like saints, demi-gods and angels and slowly introduces idolatry in subtle form (e.g. Cross. Mother Mary). Islam officially recognises the existence of angels and jinns and extensively classifies several categories of them. Superstitions are also prevalent, only they lake another form.

Eliminating polytheism in Arabia has been hailed as Muhammad’s great achievement, but it is yet to be proved that as a result, Muslims have become better people or that they have attained a higher degree of evolution than those of other faiths. Nor did they evince any need for spiritual solace and were quite content with their customs and rituals. In fact Margoliouth15 states. ‘When (Muhammad) was at the head of a robber community it is probable that the demoralising influence began to be felt, it was then that men who had never broken an oath learned that they might evade their obligations, and that men to whom the blood of the clansmen had been as their own, began to shed it with impunity in the cause of God, and that lying and treachery in the cause of Islam received divine approval, hesitation to perjure oneself that cause being reprehended as a weakness. It was then. too, that coveting of goods and wives (possessed by the Unbelievers) was avowed without discouragement from the Prophet.’ The Arabs preferred Allah to the old gods because he delivered the goods – lands, loot and women – here and now.

As Crone16 has put it: The Arabs were told, ‘if you hold out…then their property, their women, their children and their country will be yours’. God could scarcely have been more explicit. He told the Arabs that they had a right lo despoil others of their women, children and land. or indeed they had a duty to do so: Holy War consisted in obeying. Muhammad’s God thus elevated tribal militancv and rapaciousness to the heights of supreme religious virtues.


The omnipotence of Allah is so absolute that man cannot be said lo have a will of his own as will be evident from the verses on fatalism in Appendix A. But as in other cases there is contradiction here also as seen m the verses below:

1. As for Thamud. We offered them Our guidance, but they preferred blindness to guidance (41.16)

2. This is the truth from your Lord. Let him who will, believe in it, and whom he wilt, deny it (18.28)

Thus man is not responsible for his acts, and it seems doubly absurd to punish him in the sadistic manner as shown above. The Koran describes hell in gory details in order to put fear in the hearts of men as can be seen from Appendix A. Moreover the punishment is perpetual, there is no release from it forever. There is an inordinate disparity between finite offences and infinite punishment. According to John of Damascus living in the eighth century, the difference between predestination and freewill is one of the chief points of divergence between Christianity and Islam. Mill has said that there is something truly disgusting and wicked in the thought that God purposefully creates beings to

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fill hell with, beings who in any way cannot be held responsible for their actions since God Himself chooses to lead them astray. Allah is omnipotent, omniscient and benevolent, yet He is proud, jealous and behaves like a petulant tyrant.

Having reviewed some of the contradictions and intolerance in the Koran, we shall now briefly survey, the Hadilh or Hadis, its companion.


We have seen earlier that the Koran and Hadith were more or less simultaneously compiled so that they complemented each other. Ram Swarup17 has written a brilliant commentary on the Sahih Muslim, one of the six authentic texts with 7190 traditions grouped in 1243 chapters and 41 books as well as the compiler’s notes on them. We highlight below some of his important findings. The Hadith constitutes a voluminous literature describing even insignificant details of the Prophet’s life. Every hadis has a text {matn) and a chain of transmission (isnad). The same text may have several chains, but each text must be traced back to a Companion (as-hab), i.e. a person who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (tabiun), who passed them on to the succeeding generations. It is said that there were over six lakh traditions, but after much debate, only a few thousand have been accepted as ‘authentic’! Six such collections have stood the test of time.

Muslim theologians do not make any distinction between the Koran and the Hadith. To them the Hadith is the Koran in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Koran, Allah speaks through Muhammad, in the Sunnah he acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life is a visible expression of Allah’s utterances in the Koran. God provides the divine principle, Muhammad the living pattern. Allah with the help of His Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether he is going to a mosque or his bedroom or the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and pattern to follow which has been faithfully adopted by Muslims wherever they are. The morality of the thoughts and actions of believers is defined and derived from the Prophet’s actions and is valid until the end of lime. There is also no reference to any inner quest, which is the-subject of our next chapter.

The very first book in Sahih Muslim is the ‘Book of Faith’ containing 92 chapters. It is stressed that belief in 41iah iions is not sufficient; it must be accompanied by belief in the apostleship of Muhammad. It holds a wrong theology to be worse than wicked deeds. The second and third books deal with acts of physical and ritualislic cleanliness. The fourth book, ‘Book of Prayer’ is the longest with 203 chapters. The fifth, “Book of Zakaf is on charity tax. Charity is confined only to the believers. Apart from helping the poor and the needy, the funds of the Zakat are also utilised for religious warfare and gifts for new converts. Although Zakat initially provided the wherewithal for the religion’s survival, it was subsequently no longer necessary as the means for survival because of huge war booties, twenty percent of which were appropriated to Zakat.

The sixth and seventh books concern fasting in the month of Ramadan and Hajj, both counted among the pillars of Islam, Many of these practices have been adopted from the pagan Arabs although paganism has been strongly denounced in Islam. The eighth deals with marriage and divorce. Muhammad discouraged self-denial and forbade celibacy. A Muslim man may have only four wives at a time, but there was no restriction on the numbers of slave concubines and women obtained as war booty.

The ninth book deals with business practices and the next three, the tenth, eleventh and the twelfth books deal with inheritances, gifts and bequests. The next two, the thirteenth and the fourteenth books of the Hadith deal with vows and oaths. The fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth books concern crime and punishment. The punishments are quite harsh but a Muslim is not punished with death unless he has killed another Muslim, or has been found guilty of adultry or has forsaken Islam. A woman’s testimony has only half the weight of a man’s.

Jihad And War Booty

The seventeenth book is on the all important concept of Jihad. Theologically it is an intolerant idea; a tribal God, Allah, trying to be universal through conquest. Historically, it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. Allah made war booty lawful for Muslims and this proved to be the most important incentive for marauding Muslim hordes who overran settlements and nations in the name of Islam. The distribution of the booty among the hordes was always a heated and disputed issue. The Prophet described war as a ‘stratagem’ while sonic have construed it as ‘cunning’. In the event of an armed conflict one fifth of the plundered booty went to the Prophet. If the enemy surrendered without war, the whole of it belonged to him or to the Muslim victors after him. Nothing was left in the hands of the infidels and what could not be carried away was destroyed. The prisoners were either taken as slaves or exchanged for a hefty ransom. Jizya was levied on the conquered if they were non- Muslims (zimmis. or second class citizens), and besides being made to pay the special tax, they were also required to be supplicant lo the conquerors. The issue of Jihad is again covered in the next book on Government in which, eternal Paradise as the reward for Jihad is elaborated. Since all territories which are not Islamic (dar-al-harb or region of war) have to be conquered by Muslims to be so converted (dar-al-Islam), jihad was the most important activity of the faithful in any nation.

Spiritual And Political Leadership

A closed politics or civics is a necessary corollary of a closed theology. The Khalifa or the successors of the prophet who constituted the spiritual and political leadership of Arabia had to be from the Quraish tribe to which Muhammad belonged. Members of this tribe were considered supreme in all matters and thus was established one of the most durable and privileged caste in history. The Saiyids, the direct descendants of the Prophet were the cream of this caste. Absolute obedience of the ummah to the ruler is expected.


The remaining books of the Hadith cover various other aspects of mundane life

19 Hunting; rules regarding suitability of animals for eating

20 Sacrifices (of animals for worship)

21 Drinks

22 Clothing and Decorations

23 General Behaviour

24 Salutations and Greetings which also covers magic, spells, medicines, Poisons, etc.

25 Use of correct Words

26 Poetry

27 Visions and Dreams


Although Muhammad did not prohibit drinking in his Mecca days, he prohibited it later. But drinking of wine and other kinds of alcohol is fairly widespread in Islamic countries especially among the social, cultural and intellectual elite. Pre -Islam Arabs were fond of wine and hence it could not be easily eliminated. The Koran expressly forbids pork as an abomination and this can be understood only if we see these restrictions as attempts of Muslim self-definition, especially vis-a-vis Judaism and Christianity. Pigs were not known to constitute a part of the culinary habits of pre-lslamic Arabs. Chess was forbidden. Homosexuality was tolerated and therefore prevalent in all sections of Arabian society. The next two chapters deal with the Prophet and his companions. The bodily characteristics of the Prophet have been described in great detail. His many miracles are also detailed. The Prophet’s Companions, especially Aisha, his favourite wife, are also eulogised.


The next four books are

30 Virtues, Good Manners and Relationships

31 Destiny

32 Knowledge

33 Remembrance of Allah

We have already referred to the theory of predestination, subject of the thirty-first book. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined, ‘Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb’. The next two small books deal with knowledge and remembrance of Allah. There are ninety-nine sacred names of Allah whose remembrance ensures entry into paradise. Knowledge refers only to that found in the Koran and that which should he implicitly believed. The next five books deal with the after-world

34 Heart-Melting Traditions

35 Repentance

36 Hypocrites

37 Day of Judgement

38 Paradise

39 Turmoil and Portents of Last Hour


Heaven And Hell


Muhammad says that the majority (among Muslims) of those entering Hell will be women, and they will only be a minority in Paradise. He says that he has solved all the problems of the world except those created by women. The poor fare better in his hands. While he will

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not allow everyone to have his own God, Muhammad believes that everyone has his own devil (qarin) attached to him, who leads him astray – the eastern polytheist theologies see a secret Godhead in man; a prophetic one, a devil!


The book on Paradise emphasises more the description of hell than that of heaven. And the occupants of the paradise are able to see the tortures undergone by their unfortunate brethren in hell and rejoice that they have been spared! The Koran describes in great detail rivers of water, milk and honey, flowing in the most beautiful fruit gardens of Paradise and numerous youths of perpetual freshness and beautiful virgin damsels waiting on the lucky inmates. The pleasures of paradise are eternal. Unfortunately the faithful Muslim women are denied analogous rewards. There are seven grades of habitation in Paradise, with the apostles occupying exclusive quarters.


In Hell, a smoky Fire seventy times more furious than anything known on earth will wrap the inmates and large stones will hurtle down on them. Their torment when they are fed with molten metals and the bitterest plants is described in great detail. In some of the seven regions in Hell, there are countless deadly snakes and scorpions to torment the occupants. Obviously the punishment is eternal and for the unbelievers it begins right from the day of death. They do not wait for the day of resurrection like the Muslims. Of course for most Muslims it is only a purgatory with a relatively comfortable environment. Hell is an important elements of the theology finding full scope for hatred and misanthropy.

Allah‘s Mercy And Allah‘s Judgement

The thirty-fifth book deals with the all important subject of repentance. The Prophet says, ‘if you were not to commit sins, Allah would have swept you out of existence and would have replaced you by another people who have committed sin, and then asked forgiveness from Allah’. A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. It helps him as well as his Maker. It helps the believer to realise that he is a favoured creature and provides an opportunity’ for Allah to exercise His mercy. It is not an accident that religious theologies of man’s sinful nature, like that of Islam and Christianity have also sought a God of mercy. Of course His Mercy is reserved for the believers only and the unbelievers and pagans have only His wrath in store. In fact He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way both His mercy and His wrath is established. Muhammad says, ‘when it will he the Day of Resurrection, Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: ‘That is your rescue from the Hell-Fire’. Allah’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers! Thus the believers have created Allah in their own image. Repentance is not only for the other world, it is very much part of this world also. Apostasy is severely punished. Doubters were seen as hypocrites. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism, psychological pressures, political boycott, and ideological untouchability. In offending the party, religion or the prophet, even more than the after-life, you face the wrath of its strongmen and hangmen. It is no wonder that Bertrand Russel considers Communism and Islam similar – ‘Muhammadanism and Bolshevism are Practical, social, unspiritual, concerned to win the empire of this world’.

According to Muir, one of the earliest English biographers of Muhammad, the ninth sura. ‘The Repentance’ is chronologically the last sura revealed to the Prophet. The Muslim scholars also date it on the occasion of the capture of Mecca, a little before the Prophet’s death. It is entirely fitting that a sura of such bitterness, condemnation, and inspiration should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathological hatred toward the non-believers who constituted then, and do even now, the majority of men and women in the world.

The fortieth book deals with ‘Piety and Softening of Hearts’ and along with the thirtieth book contains several usual moral teachings like kindness towards widows, orphans and the poor, the need to practise charity, and abhors vanity of worldly riches and ostentatious display of one’s deeds. Even here the great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned and the teachings are restricted only to the ummah. There is no elaboration of inner life at all. It is only an outer code without any sublimation of the soul. The forty-first and the last book in Sahih Muslim is called ‘The book of Commentary’ giving superficial information about some of the Koranic verses, particularly the context in which they were revealed.


The scriptures alone are not sufficient to guide the follower in his daily life. They have to be interpreted by competent authorities. Islam does not have a formal system like the Catholic institution with the Pope as its supreme head and a well-formed Catholic Hierarchy which issues canons to cover various situations. Instead they have the sharia (fiqh), i.e. Islamic law based on four principles – the Koran, the savings and doings of the Prophet or Kunna summarised in the Hadith, consensus or ijma of scholars, and kiyas, the method of reasoning by analogy.

Interpreters or faqih, specialists in law, are even now needed to interpret various obscurities in the Sharia. Many schools of interpretation sprang up, out of which four, all surprisingly valid, have survived. The Muslims in India follow the Hanifi school. In the beginning of 900 AD, the Muslim law became rigidly and inflexibly fixed because scholars of all schools felt that all essential questions had been thoroughly discussed and settled. All future activity was confined to explanation and interpretation. This rigidity enabled it to maintain stability over the centuries which saw the decay of the political institutions of Islam.

In spite of this rigidity, rulings by the ulemas (plural of alim or one trained in the religious sciences) are needed lo deal with any situation that arises and is beyond the comprehension of the ordinary Muslim. Such rulings or decisions are called Fatwas, which have become particularly notorious after the fatwa issued on Salman Rushdie for his book, ‘Satanic Verses’. Although a very rigid religion, Islam has given birth to a number of sects over time. These, as well as the position of women in Islam and spiritual cults like Sufis, particularly in the Indian context, are discussed in Chapter four which deals with Muslim society in India.


1. Twenty-three Years. A Study of the Prophetic Career of Mohammed. All Dashti, London, 1985

2. Why I am not a Muslim, lbn Warraq. Prometheus Books, New York, 1995 .

3. Time for Stock Taking. Whither Sangh Pariwar, Ed. Sits Ram Goel, Voice Of India, New Delhi, 1997

4. Some Blunders of Indian Historica! Research, Oak, P. N. Bharati Sahitya Sadan. New Delhi.

5. Muslim Studies, 2 vols. Translated by C.R. Barber and S.M. Stern, Goidziher Ignaz, London, 1967-71

6. Islamic History. A Framework for inquiry, Humphreys, R. S., Princeton, 1991

Mohammedanism. Hurgronje Snouck, C, New York, 1916

7. Russia and Islam, Smimov, N.A., London, 1934

8. An Introduction to Islamic Law, Schacht Joseph, Oxford, 1964

9. Quranic Studies Wansbrough, J. Oxford, 1977

10. The Origins of Chistianity. Hoffman R. Joseph Amherst, N Y., 1985. p. 177

11. The Unauthorised Version, Fox R L., London, 1991, p. 176

12. Muhammad. Cook. M ., Oxford, 1983

God’s Caliph. Crone P., and Hinds M., Cambridge, 1986

13. Hagarism. The Making of the Muslim World, Crone P., and Cook, M., Cambridge, 1977

14. Quran : The Text and its History, Adams C.E., in Encyclopedia of Religion, pp 157-76.

15. Mohammed and the rise of Islam, Margoliouth D.S.. London, 1914, p 149.

16. Meccan Trade and Rise of Islam. Crone P., Oxford, 1987, pp 234-45

17. Understanding Islam through Hadis, RamSwarup, Voice of India. New Delhii, 1987


Yogi Shri Aurobindo Ghosh

Hindu-Muslim unity cannot be arrived : You can live amicably with a religion whose principle is toleration, but how is it possible to live peacefully with a religion whose principle is ‘I will not tolerate you’? How are you going to have unity with these people (Muslims)? Certainly Hindu-Muslim unity can not be arrived at on the basis that the Muslims will go on converting Hindus while the Hindus should not covert any Mohammedan.

“…You can’t build unity on such a basis. Perhaps, the only way of making the Mohammedans harmless is to make them loose their fanatic faith in their religion.” (Evening talks with Sri Aurobindo; recorded on 23.7.1923 by A.B. Purani, published by Sri Aurobindo Ashram Trust, 1995, page 291)

Hindus may have to fight the Muslims : On 18.4.1823 Sri Aurbindo told in reply to a question of a disciple : “I am sorry they (‘Pandit Madan Mohan Malavia and Chakravorty Rajagopalachari) are making a fetish of this Hindu-Muslim unity. It is no use to ignore facts; some day the Hindus may have to fight the Muslims and they must prepare for it. Hindu-Muslim unity should not mean the subjection of the Hindus. Every time the mildness of the Hindus has given way. The best solution would be to allow the Hindus to organize themselves and the Hindu-Muslim unity would take care of itself, it would automatically solve their problem. Otherwise we are lulled into a false sense of satisfaction that we have solved a difficult problem, when in fact we have only shelved it.” (ibid p. 289)

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If Muslims learn tolerance : On 29-6-1926 a disciple asked Sri Aurobindo, “If it is India’s destiny to assimilate all the conflicting elements, is it possible to assimilate the Mohammedan element also?” Sri Aurobindo replied :

“Why not?

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India has assimilated elements from the Greeks, the Persians and other nations. But she assimilates only when her Central truth is recognized by the other party, and even while assimilating she does it in such a way that the elements absorbed are no longer recognizable as foreign but become part of herself… The assimilation of the Mohammedan culture also was done in the mind to a great extent and it would have perhaps gone further. But in order that the process may be complete it is necessary that change in the Mohammedan mentality should come. The conflict is in the outer life, and unless the Mohammedans learn tolerance I do not think the assimilation is possible.

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“The Hindu is ready to tolerate. He is open to new ideas and his culture has got a wonderful capacity for assimilation, but always provided that her Central Truth is recognized.” (ibid p. 282)

Danger of civil war : On Hindu-Muslim relation Sri Aurobindo said on 30-12-1939: “I told C.R. Das (in 1923) that this Hindu-Muslim question must be solved before the Britishers go, otherwise there was a danger of civil war. He also agreed and wanted to solve it. (ibid., p. 696)


Contradictions in the Quran

Faithful believers go to any level to bend all rules of logic to deny the undeniable, defend the indefensible and explain the unexplainable.Why should there

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be a need to explain contradictions in a ‘clear book’? The best answer to show that the Quran must not be interpreted in any other way than its obvious meaning comes from the Quran itself. The Quran repeatedly claims to be a “clear book” (5:15) “easy to understand” (44:58 , 54:22 , 54:32, 54:40) “explained in detail” (6:114), “conveyed clearly”, (5:16, 10:15) and with “no doubt” in it (2:1).

1. Who was the first Muslim? Muhammad 6:14,163, Moses 7:143, some Egyptians 26:51, Abraham 2:127-133, 3:67 or was it Adam 2:37?

Muslim explanation: These people were the first Muslims “of their community” not humanity. This explanation is completely wrong since nowhere is it mentioned in the Quran that they were the first Muslims of their community. “Of their community” is invented by some Muslims to explain a clear contradiction. It is also a heinous sin to alter the words of the Quran, which those who are trying to explain this are doing.

2. Verses 22:47 and 32:5 say that Allah’s day equal to 1,000 human years. But 70:4 says that it is equal to 50,000 years.

Muslim explanation: Chapter 70 Verse 4 says, “Angels and spirits ascend unto Allah in a single day the span of which is 50,000 years”. These are 50,000 years for angels and spirits, not human beings. An year for an angel or spirit may be different than one for a human being.

This explanation again puts words in the mouth of the author of the Quran since nowhere is it mentioned that the span is 50,000 years ‘for spirits and angels’. The Quran, which claims itself to be a clear book, with no confusion, would have explicitly mentioned that these 50,000 are years for spirits and angels, and not human beings. Since this verse was going to be read by humans, it is only certain that 50,000 years mean 50,000 human years unless explicitly mentioned. This is a clear contradiction, and if there is some explanation, God would have given that explanation in the book itself being aware that this is a strong case of being seen as a contradiction.

3. Will people be raised from dead on the Last Day to receive their punishment and rewards 6.36, 7.57, 2.260, 21.21, 30.50, 35.9, 43.11, 72.7, or do they receive it right after their death? 3.169

4. Verses 7:54, 10:3, 11:7, and 25:59 say the universe was created in six days while verses 41:9-12 say it was created in eight days. Then again in 2:117 we are told that “He [3rd person] saith to it: ‘Be,’ and it is”. These are three different versions of creation – six days, eight days and instantaneously.

5. 54:19 says Allah destroyed the people of Aad in a day. 41:16 says it was days (three or more) 69:7 specifies seven nights and eight days in succession.

Now there may not be a contradiction between 41:16 and 69:7 since more than three days can mean seven (though it should have been specified in 41:16 itself that there are 7 nights and 8 days) but there is a clear contradiction between 54:19 and 69:7.

Muslim explanation: 54:19 says “One day” which means the starting day, and continued for 7 days. But 54:19 does not mention ‘started’

“For We sent against them a furious wind, on a Day of violent Disaster Plucking out men as if they were roots of palm-trees torn up (from the ground). Yea, how (terrible) was My Penalty and My Warning!”. This verse nowhere mentions that furious wind lasted more than one day. It is clear that there was only one day of violent disaster from this verse. Hence this explanation is also wrong.

6. The food for the people in Hell will be only “Dhari” 88:6, only foul pus from the washing of wounds 69:36, or will they also get to eat from the tree of Zaqqum 37:62-66?

Muslim explanation: Here, someone tries to explain the unexplainable by saying that God is simply saying that food in Hell will be horrible and that God uses different words for the same thing. This is a clear contradiction-foul pus is different from Dhari and tree of Zaqqum is also different. Nowhere is it said in the Quran that Dhari is same as pus and Zaqqum’s fruits. Forcible explanations to explain the unexplainable are all wrong.

7. Who takes the souls at death: The Angel of Death 32:11, THE angels (plural) 47:27 or Allah 39:42?

8.How many angels announced the birth of Jesus to the

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Virgin Mary? One angel 19:17-21 or several angels 3:42-45?

9. At the Day of Judgment, people are divided into three groups 56:7 or two groups 90:18-19, 99:6-8?

10. 21:30 says “heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before We [1st person] clove them asunder?” But 41:11 says “Then He [3rd person] directed Himself to the heaven and it is a vapor, so He said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said: We come willingly.” So were the heaven and earth joined originally and Allah separated them or where they separated and Allah joined them? There is a contradiction.

The above verse also assumes that heaven and earth have wills of their own and can obey or disobey God’s orders. This is good for children’s story but it is not science.

For a complete list of contradictions, this link is useful

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