HERE IS THE ISLAMIC CLAIM:
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A book entitled Earth is a basic reference textbook in many universities around the world. One of its two authors is Professor Emeritus Frank Press. He was the Science Advisor to former US President Jimmy Carter, and for 12 years was the President of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. His book says that mountains have underlying roots. These roots are deeply embedded in the ground, thus, mountains have a shape like a peg (see figures 1, 2, and 3).
This is how the Quran has described mountains. God has said in the Quran:
“Have We not made the earth as a bed, and the mountains as pegs?” (Quran 78:6-7)
Modern earth sciences have proven that mountains have deep roots under the surface of the ground (see figure 3) and that these roots can reach several times their elevations above the surface of the ground. So the most suitable word to describe mountains on the basis of this information is the word ‘peg,’ since most of a properly set peg is hidden under the surface of the ground. The history of science tells us that the theory of mountains having deep roots was introduced only in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
Mountains also play an important role in stabilizing the crust of the earth. They hinder the shaking of the earth. God has said in the Quran:
“And He has set firm mountains in the earth so that it would not shake with you…” (Quran 16:15)
Likewise, the modern theory of plate tectonics holds that mountains work as stabilizers for the earth. This knowledge about the role of mountains as stabilizers for the earth has just begun to be understood in the framework of plate tectonics since the late 1960’s.
Could anyone during the time of the Prophet Muhammad have known of the true shape of mountains? Could anyone imagine that the solid massive mountain which he sees before him actually extends deep into the earth and has a root, as scientists assert? A large number of books of geology, when discussing mountains, only describe that part which is above the surface of the earth. This is because these books were not written by specialists in geology. However, modern geology has confirmed the truth of the Quranic verses.
AND HERE IS THE REALITY:
To read the full rebuttal by Ali Sina click here
(Ali Sina) Dr. Campbell already explained how mountains are formed in a scientific language. Everything Dr. Naik says is just absurdity. He says “not all geologists” but many of them say mountains give stability to the Earth. He thinks science is like Islamic jurisprudence that each mullah can have his interpretation. Will he give us a few names so we can verify what exactly these “geologists” say and check their credentials? I hope they are not graduates from Al Azhar University.
The Earth’s surface is made up of a series of large plates (like pieces of a giant jigsaw puzzle). These plates are in constant motion traveling at a few centimeters per year. This motion is called continental drift. The edges of these plates, where they move against each other, are sites of intense geologic activity, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building.
Convection currents beneath the plates move the plates in different directions. The source of heat driving the convection currents is radioactive decay which is happening deep in the Earth
When two tectonic plates collide they press against each other until the land is lifted and folded over itself.
This movement often causes one plate to push on top of another one.
As one plate slides downward into the earth, it begins to melt pushing the other plate upwards forming mountain ranges.
In some places continents collide, in other placed they drift. Continental plates break when a plume of hot magma rises from deep within the mantle pushing up the crust and causing pressure forcing the continent to break and separate. Lava flows and earthquakes would be seen. In the diagram below you can see that the continental crust is beginning to separate creating a diverging plate boundary. When a divergence occurs within a continent it is called rifting. A plume of hot magma rises from deep within the mantle pushing up the crust and causing pressure forcing the continent to break and separate. Lava flows and earthquakes would be seen. http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/tectonic.htm
|This is an example of a divergent plate boundary (where the plates move away from each other). The Atlantic Ocean was created by this process. The mid-Atlantic Ridge is an area where new sea floor is being created.|
|As the rift valley expands two continental plates have been constructed from the original one. The molten rock continues to push the crust apart creating new crust as it does.|
|As the rift valley expands, water collects forming a sea. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is now 2,000 metres above the adjacent sea floor, which is at a depth of about 6,000 metres below sea level.|
|The sea floor continues to spread and the plates get bigger and bigger. This process can be seen all over the world and produces about 17 square kilometres of new plate every year.|
The ocean floors are continually moving, spreading from the center and sinking at the edges.
When continental plates collide the melted rock rushes upward along cracks and weak spots, bursting out as fiery volcanoes.
There are several kinds of mountains:
Dome Mountains are formed when melted rock pushes its way up under earth.
Fault Block Mountains are formed when faults or cracks in the earth’s crust force some materials or blocks of rock up and others down.
Fold Mountains are formed as layers of the earth react to forces pushing in on either side, much as a piece of paper folds when pushed together.
Volcanic Mountains are formed from by hardened lava after spurting out of a volcano.
Residual Mountains are mountains that are really plateaus that have worn down from erosion. Source
Cross-section of the French Alps: from University of Leeds. No sign of roots!
Satellite view of Pennsylvania Appalachians is an example of fault block mountains.
View north over termination of Rundle Thrust Sheet, Rocky Mountains.
What happens if push the tablecloth from its edge sliding it across the table? It wrinkles. That is more or less how mountains are formed. They are wrinkles caused in the crust of the earth.
Ironically without these devastating earthquakes life on Earth could not have evolved. The movement of continents allows carbon dioxide to be released to the atmosphere. This is essential for the photosynthesis of plants and it also keeps the temperature of the Earth constant which is necessary for life to evolve .
If you have Quicktime installed, you can click on these animations and see how mountains are formed.
Description: Illustrates the geological processes commonly found at subduction zones. The Basement rocks of much of California were formed in this way
|Himalayan Collision||Plio-Pleistocene Oblique Shortening against the San Andreas fault
Description: In the later stages of rotation, readjustment of the plate boundary resulted in north-south shortening of the Transverse Ranges
|Miocene: Rifting and rotation, volcanism, crustal upwelling and deposition in marine basins
Description: Rotation of the Transverse Ranges and eruption of the Conejo Volcanics during Miocene time
|Formation of Big Southern Butte, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho
Description: Describes the formation of Big Southern Butte. Big Southern Butte is a 300,000 year old complex of two rhyolite domes and older basalt flows that rises 2500 hundred feet above the Snake River Plain. The domes formed when rhyolite magma ponded beneath the existing Snake River Plain basalts, pushing them up.
|Dike Emplacement at Craters of the Moon National Monument
The Craters of the Moon lava field spreads across 618 square miles and is the largest young basaltic lava field in the lower 48 states. The area contains more than 25 volcanic cones including outstanding examples of spatter cones
This should suffice as proof that the Quran is wrong and mountains are not like pegs to keep the earth from shaking. Remember that Dr. Naik repeated several times, “All we need is one error to prove it is not from God”. Later I will explain where the idea of mountains being like pegs and holding the earth beneath us from shaking with us has come from.
(Dr. Naik) I have not come across a single Geological book, and I challenge Dr. William Campbell to produce a single Geological book – Not his personal correspondence with the Geologist. That does not carry weight. His personal correspondence with Dr. Keith Moore …. Documented proof. And if you read the book ‘The Earth’ which is referred by almost all the universities, in the field of Geology, one of its authors by the name of Dr Frank Press, who was the advisor to the former president of USA, Jimmy Carter, and was the president of the Academy of Science of USA. He writes in his book that…‘The mountains are wedge shaped – It has deep roots within. And he says that…‘The function of the mountain is to stabilize the earth.’ And the Qur’an says in Surah Ambiya, Ch. No 21, Verse No. 31, in Surah Luqman, Ch. No. 31 Verse No.10, as well as in Surah Nahl, Ch. No. 16, Verse No. 15, that…‘We have made the mountains standing firm on the Earth, lest it would shake with them and with you.’
(Ali Sina) Dr. Frank
Press, in his book The Earth writes: “The thickness of the crust varies from about 35 kilometer to 10 kilometer in a section extended from continent to ocean. Under a high mountain the crust thickens to as much as 65 kilometer. The following Figure suggests that the continental crust floats on the denser mantle like an iceberg on the ocean. Icebergs float because they are less dense than sea water. Flotation comes from a large volume of ice that lies below the sea surface. When Archimides’ principle of buoyancy is applied to the flotation of continents and mountains, it becomes the principle of isostasy, which holds that relatively light continents float on a more dense mangle; most of a continent’s volume lies below the sea floor for the same reason that most of an iceberg lies below the ocean surface. Nature has contrived that large topographic loads like mountains and continents are compensated – that is supported primarily by buoyancy rather than by the strength of the crust.” (page 663-664)
The lithosphere is topped by a relatively lightweight crust. Seismology reveals that the crust varies in thickness; it is thin under oceans, thicker under continent, and thicker under high mountains. In the above picture the horizontal distance is much larger.
Now let us see what the Quran says:
And the mountains are as pegs (Q.78.7)
These are not scientific statements. Every illiterate person living in the 7th century knew that the mountains are fixed. Also mountains do not resemble pegs.
(Dr. Naik) The function of the mountain in the Qur’an, is given to prevent the Earth from shaking. Nowhere does the Qur’an say that the mountain prevents the earthquake.
(Ali Sina) What could possibly “preventing earth from shaking” mean except earthquake?
(Dr. Naik) And Dr. William Campbell said – He writes in his book, and even the talk, that… ‘You find in the mountains regions, there are various earthquakes, and mountains cause earthquake.’ Point to be noted – Nowhere does the Qur’an say that mountains prevent earthquake. The Arabic word for ‘earthquake’ as Dr. William Campbell knows Arabic, is ‘zilzaal’ or ‘zalzala’- But the words used in these three Verses I quoted, it is ‘Tamida.’ ‘Tamida’ means ‘to shake’, ‘to ‘sway’, ‘to swing.’ And Qur’an says in Surah Luqman, Ch. 31, Verse No. 10, as well as Surah Nahl, Ch. No. 16 Verse No. 15…‘We have put on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it would shake with you. It is ‘tamide bikum’…‘Shake with you’, Indicating, if the mountains were not there, if you would have walked, if you would have moved, even the earth would have moved with you – If you would have swayed, even the earth would have swayed with you. And we know normally when we walk on the Earth, the Earth does not shake, and the reason for this is, according to Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Najjat who is from Saudi Arabia, and he wrote a full book on the Geological concepts in the Qur’an, answering almost every thing what Dr. William Campbell has said – in detail.
(Ali Sina) High mountains are formed through collision of tectonic plates. In planets where tectonic plates do not exist or do not migrate, there are no continental collisions, earthquakes do not take place and mountains do not form. As the result life does not evolve.  There are nearly 70 planets and moons in our solar system. None has mountain ranges like those on Earth, suggesting tectonic plates are not moving. Yet it is absurd to say that one cannot walk on the surface of these planets and moons without making the ground beneath them shake. Can anyone say anything stupider than this? In fact the reverse is true. In planets where high mountains don’t exist, the ground is very stable.
(Dr. Naik) And Dr. William Campbell in his book, he writes that…‘If mountains prevent the shaking of the earth, then how come you find earthquakes in the mountains regions.’ I said, No where does the Qur’an say, mountains prevent earthquake. Earthquake is ‘zilzaal’ – and if you see the definition in the Oxford dictionary, it says… Earthquake is due to convulsion of the superficial crust of the Earth, due to relief of compressed Seismic waves, due to crack in the rock, or due to volcanic reaction. The Qur’an speaks about ‘zalzala’ in Surah Zalzaal , Ch. 99 – But here it speaks about ‘tamida bikum’– ‘to prevent the earth from shaking with you.’
(Ali Sina) Note that this shaking, according to Dr. Naik is not caused by the volcanic eruptions or tectonic movement. It is not the kind of earthquake we know. It is something else. This shaking is the result of people waking. But as everyone knows, the earth does not shake when we walk on it. The reason? It’s thanks to the mountains that prevent this shaking. How can even one suggest that tiny beings like humans can make a continent shake by simply walking on it? This goes beyond absurdity. It’s outright asininity.
(Dr. Naik) And in reply to the statement…‘That if mountains prevent earthquakes, how come you find earthquakes in mountainous regions?’ The reply is, that – If I say that medical doctors, they prevent the sickness and disease in a human being, and if someone argues…‘If doctors prevent the sickness and diseases in a human being, how come you find more sick people in the hospitals, where there are more doctors than at home – where there are no doctors.’
(Ali Sina) What a ridiculous analogy! Patients go to hospitals AFTER they get sick because they are living and thinking beings and that is where they can get medical attention and get better. They do not become sick in hospitals (unless the hospital is in an Islamic country with Islamic hygiene). Is Dr. Naik trying to compare earthquake, a natural phenomenon, to humans? Do the earthquakes happen first elsewhere and then decide to conglomerate in mountains? This analogy is utterly ridiculous; yet Dr. Naik’s Muslim audience became so elated that they spontaneously cheered and applauded. One black guy was almost falling off his chair of excessive laughing. What these people were laughing at? At their own stupidity? Now the world can see them and laugh at them. It’s as if the more stupid is a statement, the more Muslims enjoy it. This reveals the deplorable intellectual bankruptcy of the wretched Umma.
Believe me, absurd thinking is the trait of Muslims. Sometime ago I read an essay about a Muslim child asking his religious teacher that the Quran says Jinns will be sent to hell to be punished but the the Quran also says that Jinns are made of fire, so how fire can be hurt by fire? The teacher slapped the child and asked him if it hurts? The poor lad responded yes, with tears in his eyes. “Like that!”, responded the teacher. “My hand is flesh and your face is flesh but it still hurts”. Foolish Muslims think this is such a great reasoning. This is the fallacy of wrong analogy. But the Muslim brain is not equipped with enough rationality to think deep. He WANTS to believe and any nonsense will do. There are several sites that have written against me. I receive numerous emails from Muslims who have neither read my articles nor those written by Muslims trying to refute me. And yet these people tell me that I have already been refuted and give me links to the same silly sites. They WANT to believe that I am refuted. They will believe anyone who claims he has refuted me without searching the truth of that claim. The Muslim mind works in bizarre ways.
Here Dr. Naik is trying to explain with this harebrained example why most of the earthquakes happen in mountainous regions. But didn’t he say that the Quran is not speaking of earthquake and that tamida is not zilzala? If the Quran is not talking about earthquake at all, why he tries to justify this verse with this silly example? If he is satisfied with his answer that tamida is the result people walking on earth, why talk about earthquake? Why cause more confusion? It’s because the more confused is your audience the better you can fool them. Dr. Naik is smart enough to know that ‘tamida bikum’ or ‘to prevent the earth from shaking with you’, is a bit too stupid to be swallowed even by Muslims who would generally gobble any nonsense eagerly, so he amuses his audience by telling them that it is okay that earthquakes mostly happen in mountainous regions, despite the fact that the Quran says mountains are like pegs that prevent earth from shaking with a ridiculous example of patients and doctors.
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